Tensile testing machines, also called universal material testing machines, are testing machines that test the…
Textile Color or Dyes on Textile Dyeing
Different classes of textile color:
Primary Textile Color: Blue, Red, Yellow.
Secondary Textile Color: Red + Yellow = Orange, Yellow + Blue = Green, Blue + Red = Violet.
Tertiary Textile Color: Orange + Violate = Brown
Textile Color in application:
1. Direct, 2. Diazotized, 3. Basic or alkali type, 4. Acid color, 5. Sulpher, 6. Mineral, 7. Mordant, 8. Vegetable, 9. Oxidation color, 10. Vat type: Blue Vat, Synthetic vat, 11. Napthol or Azo Color.
Fastness of Color:
Dyers and textile color maker have, over a period f at least half a century, given much attention to the fastness of colored materials when exposed to various influences such as light, washing, perspiration, hot ironing, bleaching, acids, alkalis, rubbing and the like. In the early days of dye or textile color discovery and manufacturers more attention was paid to increasing the number of textile dyes available.
When a fair number of dyes were known and made, then came careful selection from the viewpoint of fastness. For instance, the first coal-tar dyes discovered to by perking, which initiated the coal tar dye industry, were vulnerable to light and often to washing. Basic dyes, the class o which they belonged, are now not as much used as formerly for the dyeing of goods made of natural fibres, except where eth maximum possible brightness of shade is require, but unexpectedly they are proving very useful for dyeing some synthetic fibres such as acrylic fibres which the resulting colors have quite good fastness to light.
Today a newly discover textile color or dye is not put into production until it is shown either that it has fastness properties superior t these of the textile color or dye which it is likely to supplant. The result of this rigid selection is that at least one hundred times as many new dyes are being discovered as are ultimately manufactured on a large scale.
Most works where textile colors or dyes are made or applied have laboratories for the purpose of testing their products. A great deal of care is taken throughout this country as well as in others to ensure that the fastness of textile colors is sufficient to meet general and particular requirement.