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Understanding Felts Fabric,Knit Goods,Braids&Laces,Woven Goods before Testing

Felts: Felts have no regular structure but consist of masses of fiber united together by chemical treatments. Textile Tests made on felt are usually for content and are chemical and optical tests. Thickness is the most important physical test. Porosity is sometimes determined.

Knit Goods: Knit goods consist of a series of loops of a single yarn; other yarns may be used to make stripes but usually only one strand at a time. Generally saying, looping one yarn about itself. The lengthwise loops of the fabric are known as Wales and the crosswise loops as courses knit goods are often made in tubular form so that there are needs. As hosiery and underwear form the bulk of the knit goods with their use as dress goods increasing in general, appearance is the most important property. Physical test, then are not as important on knit goods as they come on the market, most of the testing of knit goods is done in the process of manufacture and carried out on the yarn which goes into the goods.

Braids & Laces: Braids and Laces, also are used principally for ornamentation and again the most important tests are those made upon the constituent yarns. This class of fabrics is, in point of quantity relatively unimportant. Fabrics are made twisting many yarns about each other.

Woven Goods: Woven Goods are by far the most important group of fabrics. They are made in a loom by arranging a number of yarns under tension and capable of being lifted and dropped by the harness mechanism, each individual yarn of the warp passing between set combs called the reed. With some of the ends lifted and some dropped to form and angle, a shuttle files across carrying one yarn; these cross yarns are known as the filling. Different patterns are made by putting different yarns in the warp and in the filling, also by lifting the warp yarns in various combinations. The filling yarns change direction at each edge of the fabric and to keep them firmly in position at the edges, a special lot of warp yarns very close together is put in. Obviously, the cloth is firmer and in general different in properties near the selvedge, so it is a general rule that no physical tests shall be made nearer than one tenth the width of the fabric to the selvedge.

There is some woven goods like-

Tapes and Ribbons: These are made very narrow and on special looms.

Mechanical fabrics: These are ordinary wide goods of fairly simple weave where appearance is secondary to strength or other physical properties.

Dress goods, suiting, coatings, poplins, broadcloths, etc. These are fabrics of fairly simple wear but appearance is more important than in the other fabrics.

Print Goods: Theses are of fairly simple weave but with a complicated color pattern applied by a printing process.

Tapestries and other similar Fabrics: These are of very complicated weave produced by complex looms or jacquard looms. Appearance is usually the most important quality in these goods.

Pile fabrics: Pile fabrics such as pushes, velvets, corduroys, and carpets. These are fabrics in which some of the yarns are cut during or after weaving so that the cut ends form the f ace of the fabric.

Multi-ply Fabrics: These are as some collar materials. These are fabrics consisting of two separate warps and filling fabrics, united by another set of warp yarns which are common to both layer.

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