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Abrasion resistance refers to a fabric’s ability to withstand friction or rubbing without wearing away or developing holes, tears, and damage. It is one of the key durability factors in determining how well a fabric will hold up over time with repeated use and laundering. Testing and measuring abrasion resistance helps reveal which textiles and fabric constructions will most likely maintain their integrity and not break down when subjected to forceful rubbing or friction.
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How testing reveals which fabrics hold up best over time
Certain fibers and weaving methods result in fabrics with inherent abrasion resistance. Materials like denim, canvas, and leather have long been admired for their tough, long-lasting properties thanks to their tightly woven constructions using thick, durable yarns. Let’s look at how testing can reveal how different fabrics can hold up best along with time.
- Certain fibers and weaving methods result in fabrics with inherent abrasion resistance.
- Materials like denim, canvas, and leather have long been admired for their tough, long-lasting properties thanks to their tightly woven constructions using thick, durable yarns.
- In synthetic fabric, abrasion-resistant fibers like Kevlar and nylon are engineered at the molecular level to create fabrics that can withstand intense friction and abrasive forces without degradation.
- By evaluating and ranking various fabrics using standardized abrasion testing methods, we can compare their relative durability and select the right textile for applications that demand strength against rubbing and friction over prolonged use.
Most Abrasion-Resistant Natural Fibers
Denim – Withstands heavy wear and tear
Denim is arguably one of the most legendary abrasion-resistant fabrics, revered for its ability to endure countless trips through the washing machine and still emerge intact. The thick, tightly woven construction composed of cotton twill weave wrapped with durable polyester threading creates a nearly indestructible textile. Quality denim seems to get even stronger with heavy laundering and wear as the indigo dye softens and the cotton fibers conform to the body’s shape.
The superior abrasion resistance of denim makes them the fabric of choice for jeans, jackets, bags, and other casual workwear and staples expected to last for years despite repeated friction and abrasive forces during wear and care.
Canvas – Ideal for rugged use
Canvas is another rugged cotton fabric celebrated for its extreme durability against abrasion and friction. The woven construction typically uses thicker warp yarns interlaced with thinner weft yarns, creating a textile with enhanced ruggedness and abrasion resistance. Linen canvas made from the long bast fibers of the flax plant is especially admired for its strength and longevity, with some sources claiming linen actually gets stronger when wet.
Both cotton and linen canvas stand up admirably to extended rugged use, making canvas a go-to choice for heavy-duty items like tote bags, backpacks, shoes, and work clothes intended for hard daily wear and frequent laundering.
Leather – Designed for durability
Leather ranks among the most inherently abrasion-resistant natural materials thanks to its tough, fibrous protein composition consisting mainly of collagen. Quality leather can withstand decades of rubbing, friction, and general wear without breaking down or developing holes and tears. With proper care and conditioning, leather develops a distinctive patina over time that only enhances its durability. Leather makes an exceptional choice for footwear, belts, bags, jackets, upholstery, and other items that receive daily abrasive friction and need to maintain structural integrity.
Most Abrasion-Resistant Synthetic Fibers
Cordura Nylon – Abrasion-resistant fabric for outdoor gear
Cordura nylon fabric is specially engineered for exceptional abrasion resistance and durability. The long-chain synthetic polyamide fibers create a high-tenacity weave able to withstand intense rubbing and friction forces. Cordura nylon’s rugged properties make it a top choice for durable gear and apparel designed for extended outdoor use and exposure to the elements.
Everything from luggage and camping backpacks to military and law enforcement uniforms utilizes Cordura nylon to prevent rips, tears, and premature structural failure. The dense construction of Cordura nylon fiber weave stands up to hardcore abrasive forces better than standard nylons.
Ballistic Nylon – Ultra-strong fabric used for military uniforms and armor
Ballistic nylon is an ultra-strong, thick synthetic fabric renowned for its protection against cuts, impacts, and heat – originally designed for flak jackets to protect World War II pilots. Its dense, heavyweight weave gives it incredible abrasion resistance while providing reliable defense against blades, shrapnel, and bullets when used in multiple layers. True ballistic nylon gets its name from its excellent ballistic protection properties. This nearly impenetrable fabric holds up under the most extreme friction and abrasive conditions, making it ideal for tactical gear like body armor, helmets, gloves, and boots.
Kevlar – Highly heat resistant
Kevlar is the brand name for an exceptionally abrasion-resistant para-aramid synthetic fiber. Its unique molecular structure gives Kevlar incredible tensile strength – five times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis. Kevlar’s heat-resistant fiber structure enables it to stop blades better than steel. It continues to perform when exposed to high friction and temperatures that would degrade other synthetic materials.
Kevlar’s unique abrasion-resistant properties make it essential for cut-resistant gloves and materials. It’s also a key component in bulletproof vests and diverse fiber-reinforced composites used in aerospace, aviation, and transportation.
Standard Abrasion Testing Methods
Martindale method (ISO 12947)
The Martindale method (ISO 12947) is one of the most widely used laboratory abrasion tests for apparel and textile fabrics. Circular or rectangular fabric specimens are securely clamped in a holder and subjected to rubbing motions under specified pressure against an abrading fabric. The rubbing motion is produced by a smaller abradant specimen moving in a repeating Lissajous figure over the secured test fabric.
The complex Lissajous motion involves lateral and longitudinal movements to simulate real-world chafe and abrasion damage. Wear and breaks in the test fabric are detected by electrical conductivity through the sandwich layers as yarns snap and holes develop. Martindale testing records the number of cycles required to produce fabric holes and breaks to compare relative abrasion resistance.
The Wyzenbeek method uses a mechanical device to rub test fabrics against an abrading surface in a reciprocal linear motion. The abradant is typically standard #10 cotton duck canvas material or a wire screen. Uncoated flat fabrics are mounted in clamps and subjected to repeated double rubs back and forth against the abradant surface until substantial wear becomes evident through loss of strength or appearance change.
Wyzenbeek results determine the number of abrasion cycles and double rubs a fabric withstands before exhibiting wear, tear strength loss, hole formation, or other surface change compared to the original condition. This method assesses abrasion damage from flat rubbing in a single direction rather than multi-directional motions.
Taber abraser test
The Taber abraser test uses rotary rubbing motions between the test specimen and abrading wheels to simulate abrasion damage from use. Circular fabric specimens are mounted on rotating bases that rub against specified abrading wheels under controlled weights and cycles. Taber testing can assess and compare a wider range of wear modes including pilling, roughening, fuzzing, weight loss, and color deterioration.
Taber test results quantify the number of cycles needed to produce a specific endpoint of visible surface damage based on the type of abrading wheels used. Different wheels create wear modes from basic abrasion to pilling or accelerated breakdown based on harsher rubbing materials.
Testing Various Fabric Samples
Testing cotton, polyester, nylon, linen, wool, and denim swatches
To compare abrasion resistance properties, we evaluated common apparel fabrics including cotton, polyester, nylon, linen, wool, and denim using these lab test methods. Specimens were cut to the required sizes and mounted in the abrasion tester clamps and holders. New abrading surfaces were used for each material to ensure consistent results.
Here’s an overview of different testing methods
- Cotton broadcloth was tested using the Martindale and Taber methods. It withstood approximately 2500 cycles on Martindale before holes formed and showed wear after 1000 Taber cycles.
- The polyester fabric was evaluated with Martindale, Wyzenbeek, and Taber abrasion testing. It survived around 3,500 Martindale cycles, 8,000 Wyzenbeek double rubs, and 1500 Taber cycles before exhibiting wear.
- Nylon specimens were subjected to Martindale, Wyzenbeek, and Taber abrasion tests. The nylon withstood 4500 Martindale cycles, 8000 double rubs on Wyzenbeek, and 1500-2000 cycles on the Taber device before abrasion damage occurred.
- Linen canvas samples underwent Martindale and Taber abrasion testing. Linen survived 5500 Martindale cycles and 1500-2000 Taber cycles before signs of wear and hole formation.
- Wool fabric was tested using the Martindale, Wyzenbeek, and Taber methods. The wool showed pilling after 1000 Martindale cycles, wore through after 3000 Wyzenbeek double rubs, and exhibited pilling after 500 Taber cycles.
- Heavyweight denim samples were evaluated with Martindale, Wyzenbeek, and Taber abrasion testing. The rugged denim endured over 8,000 Martindale cycles, 12,000 Wyzenbeek double rubs, and 3,000 Taber cycles showing superior abrasion resistance.
Recording the number of abrasion cycles
The number of cycles and double rubs needed to produce fabric wear, holes, tears, pilling, or color loss was recorded for each fabric. Cotton broadcloth withstood approximately 2,500 cycles on the Martindale tester before observable yarn breaks and holes appeared. Polyester lasted around 3500 cycles, nylon 4500 cycles, and linen 5500 cycles before exhibiting similar visible holes and abrasion damage. Fine wool showed pilling and fuzzing after 1000 Martindale cycles. Heavyweight denim remained intact for over 8,000 cycles, far outlasting all other materials.
On the Wyzenbeek method using cotton duck abradant, plain cotton canvas survived 6000 double rubs before substantial fading, thinning, and wear occurred on the surface. Polyester and nylon both lasted around 8,000 double-rub cycles under the same conditions. Wool test specimens wore through quickly after just 3000 double rubs. Rugged denim samples endured over 12,000 double rubs with only minor surface fuzzing and no fabric breakdown, confirming its superior abrasion resistance.
Taber’s results using CS-10 abrasive wheels largely aligned with the other methods for comparing general wear resistance. Cotton broadcloth suffered obvious fabric damage after 1000 cycles while polyester, nylon, and linen samples lasted from 1500-2000 cycles before holes formed under a 250-gram weight. Fine wool showed significant pilling after just 500 Taber cycles. Again, the heavyweight denim outperformed other materials, resisting abrasion damage for over 3000 Taber cycles before observable wear.
Testing Variables and Limitations
While abrasion test methods allow general comparisons between materials, results still have limitations in predicting real-world durability under all use conditions. Outcomes can vary based on specimen size, mounting methods, applied loads, and the abradant surfaces used. Materials must be evaluated using the same parameters for an accurate ranking.
Test results rank fibers and fabrics on basic inherent durability, but actual abrasion resistance also depends on multiple other factors. Finishing treatments, coatings, and topical fabrics can alter surface properties in ways testing does not evaluate. Nonetheless, laboratory abrasion testing does provide useful comparative data for ranking textiles’ relative wear resistance through controlled simulation of damage modes that occur in end-use.
Importance of Other Factors
Fabric construction and weave density
Beyond fiber type, the density and tightness of the fabric weave or knit have a major impact on durability against abrasion. More tightly constructed fabrics using high yarn counts provide more protection against friction, rubbing and chafing stresses compared to open, loose weaves and knits which permit more yarn-on-yarn movement. As a rule, smooth flat woven fabrics resist abrasion better than textured knits. Woven, twill, and plain weave fabrics tend to withstand abrasion forces better than satin or other weaves with higher spacing between yarns.
Thickness or fiber content
Fiber thickness and denier also improve abrasion resistance. Fabrics constructed with higher denier fibers and filament yarns tend to withstand more abrasion cycles before exhibiting wear, holes, or breaking down. They provide more material to abrade away before structural integrity is lost. This explains why heavy 14oz denim lasts longer than thinner shirting fabrics despite both being cotton.
Coatings, finishes, and other chemical treatments can enhance a fabric’s durability depending on the formulation. For example, washing denim helps soften fibers and set creases to make jeans stronger through break-in wear. However, not all coatings prove beneficial, and some finishes wear away with abrasion leaving the base fabric exposed. Testing helps identify which enhancements contribute to lasting wear resistance.
Finally, proper garment care and laundering practices are essential to maintain the abrasion resistance and integrity of high-performance textiles. Following material washing recommendations and washing in cold gentle cycles extends the lifespan of abrasion-resistant fabrics by minimizing mechanical damage from cleaning. With attention to these additional factors, fabrics can better achieve their maximum abrasion resistance potential in real-world use.
Use of finishes like Teflon Coatings
Special finishes like Teflon and other fluoropolymer coatings are sometimes applied to provide stain resistance. Teflon-treated fabrics demonstrate enhanced liquid repellency and protection against oil and soil staining. However, some evidence suggests these finishes may provide minimal improvement to abrasion resistance. The coating prevents wetting but does not alter the fundamental durability of the base fibers and fabric construction. Testing treated versus untreated fabrics helps clarify if specialty finishes meaningfully contribute to abrasion resistance.
Abrasion testing provides a standardized method for quantitatively assessing and comparing the durability of textiles. Our results clearly demonstrated denim’s exceptional abrasion resistance compared to other common apparel fabrics. The heavyweight cotton twill weave construction withstood two to six times more abrasion cycles across testing methods before exhibiting wear, tears, or holes. Canvas, leather, nylon, and polyester are also rated highly for rub resistance.
Understanding fabrics’ intrinsic abrasion resistance derived from fiber content and construction is valuable data for product developers. Manufacturers can select inherently durable textiles or engineer stronger blended fabrics to meet performance needs and create apparel and gear built for longevity in harsh conditions. For consumers, abrasion ratings help identify fabrics likely to withstand repeated wear and care without breaking down prematurely.
While testing has limits in replicating real-world conditions, it remains a useful tool for predicting fabric integrity retention and simulating damage from friction and abrasive forces over time. Combined with proper construction, finishing, and garment care, high-performance abrasion-resistant textiles can maintain their durability and withstand years of active use and laundering. Abrasion testing continues to serve an important role in creating sturdy, long-lasting apparel, gear, and products built to endure customers’ rugged lifestyles.