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Organic polymer materials, also known as molecular materials or high polymer, mechanical properties of which are strength, stiffness, hardness, plasticity, and toughness. Indicators reflecting these mechanical properties include yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, section shrinkage, impact toughness, fatigue limit, fracture toughness, etc. This article is an overview of mechanical property testing of common organic polymer materials.
Table of Contents
★ Classification of Polymer Materials
There is a wide range of polymers with different properties. Common polymers include plastics, fibres, rubber, coatings, adhesives, etc., which can partially replace metal and non-metal materials.
|Plastics are made from synthetic resins or chemically modified natural polymers, with fillers, plasticisers and other additives. Plastics are usually classified into thermosets and thermoplastics according to the properties of the synthetic resin, and into general purpose plastics and engineering plastics according to their use.
|Fibers are divided into natural fibres and chemical fibres. The former refers to silk, cotton, linen, wool, etc. The latter are manufactured from natural or synthetic polymers through spinning and post-treatment. Fibers have a high secondary valence force, low deformation capacity, and high modulus.
|Rubber is a linear, flexible polymer. Its small secondary valence force between the molecular chains and the flexibility of the molecular chains allow for large deformations under the action of external forces, which can be quickly restored after removal. There are two types of rubber: natural rubber and synthetic rubber.
|With polymer as the main film-forming material, adding solvent and various additives. Depending on the film-forming substance, they are divided into grease coatings, natural resin coatings and synthetic resin coatings.
|It is a kind of adhesive material based on the synthesis of natural polymer compounds. There are two types of natural and synthetic adhesives. Synthetic adhesives are used more frequently.
Polymers can be divided into the above categories according to their mechanical properties and use state. But there is no strict boundary between all kinds of polymers, the same polymer, using different synthesis methods and molding processes, can be made into plastic, can also be made into fiber, such as nylon is so. Polyurethane is a kind of polymer, both glassy and elastic at room temperature, so it is difficult to say whether it is rubber or plastic.
★ Testing Standards for Mechanical Properties of Common Organic Polymer Materials
The mechanical properties of polymers are the most important properties to be considered when using polymers. It involves material design, product design, and conditions of use of polymer materials, therefore, understanding the mechanical properties test of polymer is a necessary prerequisite for us to understand polymer materials.
Foam is characterized by low relative density, high specific elastic modulus, and high specific strength, which makes it an ideal lightweight structural material. At the same time, foam is an effective protective material due to its strong impact absorption capacity, good cushioning performance, sound insulation, and heat insulation, and has a wide range of applications in various industries.
Testing standards for mechanical properties of foam materials.
ASTM D3574 Testing Equipment for Flexible Cellular Urethane Foams
ASTM D5672 Indentation Force Deflection of Flexible Cellular Plastic Foam
ISO 1798 Tensile Test of Flexible Cellular Polymers
ISO 2439 Indentation Hardness of Flexible Cellular Plastic Foam
ISO 3385 Flexible Cellular Foam Fatigue by Constant-Load Pounding
ISO 8067 Flexible Cellular Polymeric Materials Tear Strength
Geotextiles are synthetic fibers of polyester, polypropylene, acrylic, nylon, and other polymers, which are widely used as materials related to soil, rock, clay, or other geotechnical engineering. Geotextiles used in general engineering have various physical functions such as anti-seepage, backfiltration, drainage, isolation, reinforcement, protection and sealing.
Testing standards for mechanical properties of geotextiles materials.
ASTM D4533 Trapezoid Tearing Strength of Geotextiles
ASTM D4594 Effects of Temperature on Stability of Geotextiles
ASTM D4595 Wide-Width Tensile Test Equipment for Geotextiles
ASTM D4632 Grab Test For Geotextiles
ASTM D4833 Index Puncture Resistance Test Equipment for Geomembranes
ASTM D4884 Strength of Sewn or Thermally Bonded Seams of Geotextiles
ASTM D6241 Puncture Testing for Geotextiles
ASTM D6392 Peel and Shear Tests of Geomembrane Seams
ASTM D6496 Bonding Peel Strength Between the Top and Bottom Layers of Needle-Punched Geosynthetic Clay Liners
ASTM D6637 Single or Multi-Rib Tensile Test of Geogrids
ASTM D6693 Tensile Test of Geomembranes
ASTM D6992 Tensile Creep-Rupture of Geosynthetic Materials
ASTM D7003 Tensile Test of Reinforced Geomembranes
ASTM D7004 Tensile Test of Reinforced Geomembranes
ASTM D7005 Bond Strength (Ply Adhesion) of Geocomposites
ASTM D7056 Tensile Shear – Bituminous Geomembrane
ISO 12236 Static Puncture Test (CBR test) for Geosynthetics
ISO 13431 Tensile Creep of Geotextiles
The mechanical properties of paper is the strength of the paper under the action of external forces, is the necessary guarantee of the smooth printing process, mainly affected by the following aspects: rheological properties (elasticity), Z-compression deformation characteristics, mechanical strength and surface strength.
Testing standards for mechanical properties of paper materials.
ASTM D4987 Tensile Strength of Perforations in One-Part Continuous Forms Paper
ASTM D828 Tensile Force Deflection of Paper and Paperboard
ISO 11093-6 Three Point bend test of Paper and board cores
ISO 11093-7 Flexural Modulus of Paper and Board Cores Using Three-Point Method
ISO 13820 Compression Testing Equipment for Paper, Board and Corrugated Fibreboard
ISO 2872 Corrugated Paper and Cardboard
ISO 2874 Corrugated Paper and Cardboard
TAPPI T 451 Flexural Stiffness and Flexural Properties – Paper
TAPPI T 456 Tensile Breaking Strength Testing of Water-Saturated Paper and Paperboard
TAPPI T 494 Tensile Testing of Paper
TAPPI T 821 Pin Adhesion of Corrugated Board
TAPPI T 822 Ring Crush of Paperboard (Rigid Support Method)
TAPPI T 826 Short Span Compressive Strength – Paperboard
TAPPI T 838 Edge Crush Test Using Neckdown
The elasticity modulus of plastics is between that of rubber and fiber, about 107-108Pa. At slightly higher temperatures, the deformation by force can be several times higher. The deformation of some plastics is reversible and some are permanent.
Testing standards for mechanical properties of plastics materials.
ASTM D256 Izod Impact Resistance of Plastics
ASTM D6110 Charpy Impact Resistance of Notched Specimens of Plastics
ASTM D624 Tear Testing for Rubber and Elastomers
ASTM D6272 Four Point Flexural Bend Test Machine for Plastics and Insulating Materials
ASTM D638 Tension Testing for Plastics
ASTM D695 Compression Testing for Rigid Plastics
ASTM D7774 Flexural Fatigue Test Equipment for Plastics
ASTM D790 Testing for Flexural Properties of Plastics and Insulating Materials
ASTM D882 Tensile Testing for Thin Plastic Sheeting
ISO 13802 Pendulum Impact Test of Plastics | Machines
ISO 179 Charpy Impact Strength of Notched Plastics | Testing Equipment
ISO 180 Izod Impact Strength of Plastic | Test Equipment
ISO 527 – Tensile Test of Plastics Composites
Rubber is characterized by high elasticity at room temperature and can produce a large deformation of up to 1000% even under the action of a small external force. After the external force is removed, it can quickly return to its original state. The elasticity modulus of rubber is small, about 105-104Pa. Commonly used rubbers are natural rubber (isoprene rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber, butadiene rubber (polybutadiene), ethylene propylene rubber and silicone rubber.
Testing standards for mechanical properties of rubber materials.
ASTM D1229 Rubber Compression Set Test Equipment
ASTM D1414 Tension testing and tension set of Rubber O-Rings
ASTM D1871 Adhesion Between Tire Bead Wire and Rubber
ASTM D2229 Adhesion Between Steel Tire Cords and Rubber Test Equipment
ASTM D395 Compression of Rubber in Air or Liquid Test Equipment
ASTM D412 Tension Testing for Rubber and Elastomers
ASTM D413 Peel Adhesion of Rubber to Flexible Substrate
ASTM D429 Rubber to Metal Adhesion Test Equipment
ASTM D575 Compression Test of Rubber
ISO 1421 Tensile Rubber Plastics Fabric Strip Test Equipment
ISO 34-1 & ISO 34-2 Tear Strength of Rubber, Vulcanized or Thermoplastic – Trouser
ISO 6133 Rubber Tear and Adhesion Strength
The raw material of textile is fiber, and the elastic modulus of fiber is large, about 109~1010Pa, and the deformation does not exceed 20% when it is stressed. Fiber macromolecules along the axial for regular arrangement, in a wide range of temperature (-50℃~150℃), the mechanical properties do not change much. Commonly used synthetic fibers are: nylon, polyester, acrylic and vinylon, etc.
Testing standards for mechanical properties of textile materials.
ASTM D1424 Tearing Strength of Fabrics by Falling-Pendulum Type (Elmendorf) Apparatus
ASTM D2061 Zipper strength Testing Equipment
ASTM D2208 Grab Break Strength Leather Testing Equipment
ASTM D2209 Tensile Strength Leather Testing Equipment
ASTM D3787 Ball Burst Textiles Constant Rate Traverse CRT Test Equipment
ASTM D3822 Tensile Single Textile Fibers Testing Machine
ASTM D5034 Grab Testing for Textile Fabrics
ASTM D5035 Breaking Force and Elongation of Textile Fabrics by Strip Method
ASTM D6775 Break Strength and Elongation Test Equipment for Textile Webbing, Tape and Braided Material
ASTM D76 Tensile Textiles Test Machine
ISO 13934 Test Machines for Grab and Strip Tests of Fabric
ISO 13935 Seam Tensile Properties of Textiles
ISO 3341 Tensile Textile Glass Yarn Test Equipment
ISO 3342 Tensile Breaking Force of Textile Glass Mats
Can be several homogeneous or heterogeneous parts(or materials) connected together, after curing with enough strength of a class of substances(organic or inorganic natural or synthetic), which collectively known as adhesives, bonding agents, adhesives, and customarily, used to refer to as glue. It is a viscous flow state at room temperature, and when it is subjected to external force, it will produce permanent deformation, and after the external force is withdrawn, the polymer cannot recover its original shape.
Testing standards for mechanical properties of adhesives materials.
ASTM D1781 Climbing Drum Peel Test Equipment for Adhesives
ASTM D1876 T Peel Resistance Test Equipment for Adhesives
ASTM D2979 Tack Adhesive Testing Machine
ASTM D3330 Peel Adhesion Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tapes
ASTM D3433 Fracture Cleavage Adhesives Testing Machine
ASTM D3528 Tension Strength of Double Lap Shear Adhesive Joints
ASTM D3762 Adhesive-Bonded Surface Durability of Aluminum (Wedge Test)
ASTM D6195 Loop Tack Adhesives Test Equipment
ASTM D6862 90 Degree Peel Resistance Test Equipment for Adhesives
ASTM D897 Tensile Strength Test Equipment for Metal to Metal Adhesive Bonds
ASTM D903 180 degree Peel Strip Strength of Adhesive Bonds
ASTM D905 Wood Adhesive Bonds in Shear by Compression Loading
ISO 4578 Peel Resistance Testing Adhesives
ISO 4587 Tensile Lap-Shear Strength of Rigid-to-Rigid Bonded Assemblies