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Know the Truth about Textile Fabric Construction
Hello everyone, I am the meltblown non-woven fabric that has been popular for a long time, and I am glad to meet you all. Instead of talking about masks today, let’s talk about my big family: textile fabrics. In this big family, I have many brothers and sisters, and they are found in various industries. Here I will take you into the world of textile fabrics.
Table of Contents
1 What is the textile fabric?
Definition of textile fabric: textile industry term, it is flaky and soft, made up of elongated objects (yarn, fiber, and filament) through certain structural relationship (cross relationship, winding relationship, connecting relationship), widely used in clothing, medical, industrial and other fields.
2 Three structural relationships of fabric
The structural relationship of fabric generally refers to the organization structure of fabric, which is the spatial relationship between various raw materials (fiber, yarn, filament) in fabric, mainly including cross relationship, winding relationship and connecting relationship. These three structural relationships of fabric are the first and most important step for us to know and understand fabric, because all the specifications, properties and functions of fabric are based on the premise of these three structures.
|Structural relationship||Definition||Representative fabrics|
|Cross relationship||Two groups of yarns meet in a straight line and then alternate up and down to form a sine cosine curve-like stable overlapping relationship.||Woven fabric: on the loom by mutual perpendicular, a group of warp yarn and a group of weft yarn according to a certain law interwoven.|
|Winding relationship||A group of yarns makes a curved movement from left to right, and the yarns close to each other surround each other to form a stable relationship.||Knitted fabric: formed by the regular movement of the yarn through the knitting and form loops, loops and loops in series with each other to form the fabric.|
|Connecting relationship||The yarns close to each other or in contact with each other rely on external forces such as bonding to form a stable relationship.||Nonwoven fabric: textile short fibers or filaments are oriented or randomly arranged to form a fiber network structure, and then reinforced by mechanical, thermal or chemical methods.|
3 Category distinction of fabric
3.1 Tissue structure distinction
3.1.1 Woven fabrics, are mainly divided into plain fabrics, twill fabrics and satin fabrics. Woven fabric has stable structure, no elasticity (except for the fabric with elastic fiber), flat surface, solid and durable. There are mainly chiffon, Oxford cloth, denim, twill, facecloth, flower satin, etc.
3.1.2 knitted fabric, by the same yarn of the loop string set to form weft knitted fabric, by the parallel arrangement of the warp yarn formed the loop string set to form warp knitted fabric, the loop is the basic structural unit of knitted fabric. The main characteristics of knitted fabrics are rich in elasticity, soft feel of the cloth, comfortable for the body, breathable, easy to disperse. There are mainly sweat cloth, velvet, bird’s eye cloth, mesh cloth, etc.
3.1.3 Non-woven fabric, also called needle-punched nonwoven fabric. Nonwoven fabric is moisture-proof, breathable, flexible, lightweight, flame retardant, non-toxic and tasteless, inexpensive, recyclable, etc. It can be used for heat insulation, masks, clothing, medical, filling materials, etc.
3.2 Distinction between the front and back of the fabric
|Appearance||Positive and negative features to distinguish|
|Pattern||Most of the fabric front pattern, color and luster are clearer than the reverse side of the beautiful|
|Fabric trim||The clean and neat side is the front side|
|Striped fabric||With stripes and other appearance of the front side of the fabric pattern clear and beautiful|
|Convex or Convex fabrics||The front side is close and delicate, with stripes or patterns convex patterns, while the reverse side is rougher, with a longer floating long line.|
|Pile fabrics||Single-sided pile fabric, pile side for the front side of the fabric. |
Double-sided pile fabric, pile clean, neat side for the front.
|Double, multi-layer fabric||Generally, the front side has a greater density, or the front side of the material is better.|
|Towel fabrics||The side with a large density of terry is the front side.|
|Lace fabrics||The grain is clear, grain warps a prominent side for the front.|
3.3 Distinction of fabric warp and weft direction
Warp and weft are the two yarn systems of woven fabrics, and discriminating warp and weft is a prerequisite for woven fabric characterization.
|• Observe the edge of the fabric. The direction parallel to the edge of the fabric is the warp yarn, and the direction perpendicular to the edge of the fabric is the weft yarn.|
|• The one containing pulp is warp yarn, the one without pulp is weft yarn.|
|• General big density is the direction of warp yarn, the direction of small density is weft yarn|
|• Reed mark obvious fabric, the direction of the reed mark is warp|
|• If a group of yarns are strands, and another group is a single yarn, usually strands yarn are warp yarn, single yarn is weft.|
|• If the two twist direction of the yarn in the fabric is different, generally Z twist is warp direction, S twist is weft direction.|
|• If the twist of the yarn in the fabric is different at the same time, general the larger twist is warp direction, and the smaller twist is the weft direction.|
|• If the difference of warp and weft yarn special number, twist direction, twist of fabrics are not large, then the yarn with uniform stripes and good luster is the warp yarn.|
|• Towel type fabric, the yarn of its starting terry is warp yarn, not weft yarn.|
|• Strip fabric, the strip direction is usually warp yarn.|
|• If a system of yarn has a variety of different yarn count, this direction is the warp direction.|
|• Lace fabric, there are twisted yarn is warp yarn, no twisted is weft yarn.|
|• In mixed fabrics, general cotton wool or cotton and linen interwoven fabrics, cotton is warp; wool silk interwoven, silk is warp; wool silk cotton interwoven, then silk, cotton is warp; natural filament and silk interwoven products, natural filament is warp; natural silk and rayon interwoven products, natural silk is warp.|
3.4 Distinction of fabric raw materials
|Natural Fibers||Cotton, linen, wool, silk||Content Analysis|
|Synthetic Fibers||Polyester, acrylic, nylon, vinylon, spandex, chlorine||Identification of the same textile fiber species, blending ratio determination.|
|Man-made Fibers||Viscose, soy fiber, glass fiber, metal fiber, bright silk (ice silk)|
|Blended Fabrics||Cotton-blend (NC fabric), cotton-polyester blend (TC fabric), cotton-blend-polyester blend (TNC fabric)|
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Appendix: Common fabric names and characteristics
1 Linen: plant fiber, known as cool and noble fiber, it is good moisture absorption, moisture release is also fast, not easy to produce static heat, rapid heat dissipation, wear cool, after sweat the body does not stick, more resistant to washing, heat resistance is good.
2 Mulberry silk: natural animal protein fiber, smooth, soft, lustrous, warm in winter and cool in summer, rubbed with a unique “silk” phenomenon, has good extensibility, good heat resistance, not resistant to salt water immersion, should not be treated with chlorine bleach or detergent.
3 Viscose fiber: processed with wood, cotton staple, reeds and other materials containing natural cellulose chemical materials, also often called artificial cotton, with the basic properties of natural fibers, good dyeing performance, good fastness, soft fabric, specific gravity, good drape, good moisture absorption, cool to wear, not easy to produce static electricity, abrasion and pilling.
4 Cellulose acetate fibre: made of natural materials containing cellulose by chemical processing, with the style of silk, light and comfortable to wear, good elasticity and elastic recovery performance, should not be washed, poor color fastness.
5 Polyester: belongs to polyester fiber, has excellent elasticity and recovery, the fabric is stiff, not wrinkled, good conformability, high strength, elasticity is good, durable and excellent light resistance, but easy to produce static electricity and poor dust and moisture absorption.
6 polyamide fiber, dyeing ability in synthetic fibers is better, wearing light, and good waterproof and windproof performance, good abrasion resistance, strength and elasticity.
7 Polypropylene: waxy feel and luster, elasticity and recovery in general, not easy to wrinkle, small specific gravity, clothing comfort, can be faster to pass sweat to keep the skin comfortable, strength and wear resistance are relatively good durability, not resistance high temperature.
8 Spandex: excellent elasticity, also known as elastic fiber, Lycra. Good elasticity, smooth feel, small moisture absorption, good weather and chemical resistance, machine washable, heat resistance is poor.
9 Interwoven hemp fabrics: fine texture, firm and durable, while the surface clean, feel are softer than pure hemp fabrics, comfortable to wear.
10 Palace: is wool mixed with polyester, the surface is smooth, light texture, feel sharp, brace wrinkle, easy to wash and easy to dry, have good wearing performance.
11 Gabardine: feel smooth glutinous and solid, dense and elastic texture, cloth surface smooth and smooth color light soft natural.
12 Fancy suiting: The texture is light, smooth to the touch, comfortable to wear, stiff, good moisture absorption, breathable.
13 Loose and light woolen fabric: With easy and soft, loose structure, light weight, soft hand, elasticity, breathable characteristics, comfortable to wear.
14 Melton Mowbray: a kind of coarse wool fabric, feel rich, fine and smooth, the body bone is firm, elastic, wear-resistant and not easy to pilling, soft color and beautiful.
15 Plush: pile flat and upright, dense and firm, good warmth, luster bright, soft, feel rich and thick, warm and light, with good wear ability.
16 Flat cloth: simple organization, tight structure, firm and strong, the surface is flat lack of tube elasticity.
17 Fine cloth: the fabric is firmer than silk, the surface is flat and fine, light like silk, soft, comfortable.
18 Poplin fabric: fine texture, light, cloth soft, smooth, brace, clear surface weave grain full, luster and glitter, have a good texture.
19 Khaki twill: fabric texture is tight, thick, firm, with good wear resistance, brace, weave pattern clear.
20 Oxford cloth: with characteristics of cotton fabric, with a soft feel, natural luster and cloth surface pores, comfortable to wear, flat and good conform ability.
21 DENIM: coarse count yarn twill cotton fabric, with cotton indigo-dyed warp yarn and natural color weft yarn, using three on one right twill organization interwoven fabric. Thick texture, moisture permeability, good breath ability, comfortable to wear.
22 Flannelette: soft to the touch, good warmth, comfortable to wear, cloth appearance of soft color.
23 Cashmere: light texture, and very warm, is a unique and rare animal fiber, in foreign countries have “fiber diamond”, “soft gold” called, it has a soft, thin, smooth, thin, elastic and other characteristics and has a natural soft color and Good moisture absorption, good wear resistance.
24 Rabbit hair: small specific gravity, good warmth, elastic, with strong moisture absorption, soft, warm, beautiful and other characteristics, poor holding power, low strength, easy to fall hair.
25 Mohair: high strength, high elastic recovery rate, strong wrinkle resistance, good abrasion resistance and moisture absorption, strong anti-fouling, good dyeing, not shrinkage and not easy to felt shrinkage.
26 Camel hair: lighter color, weak luster, smooth and soft hand, good elasticity and strength, good warmth, good wear resistance.
27 Worsted wool fabric: clear weave pattern, bright and soft colors, tight texture, soft hand, brace and elastic
28 Coarse spun woolen fabric: thick texture, rich and strong hand, not easy to deformation, good warmth.
29 Duan: fine and soft texture, smooth and bright surface, exquisite and delicate.
30 Linen cotton blend: cotton moisture absorption, good dyeing, good warmth, hemp has high strength, good natural luster, bright dyeing, not easy to fade, good heat resistance, linen-cotton blend, the appearance is not as clean as cotton fabric but good luster, a sense of softness, more straight, good heat dissipation, not easy to fade.
31 Polyester linen blend: polyester is not easy to deformation, not lint, hemp strength, good luster, not easy to fade, polyester hemp blend to make up for some of the shortcomings of the fabric is cool, good moisture absorption, comfortable to wear, easy to wash and dry, reduce wrinkling, lint.
32 Spun silk: recognized around the world noble natural fibers, is a senior textile raw materials, with high tenacity, fine and soft fibers, smooth and elastic, good moisture absorption, fabric luster, a unique “silk” sense, wear to the body smooth, comfortable, elegant and noble.
33 Silk: bright, noble, a certain amount of straight silk content, can make the product feel more smooth, denser, lustrous, comfortable, elegant, noble, good elastic strength, moisture absorption, wearing breathable, comfortable
34 TENCEL: is an environmentally friendly fiber, in the process of purification and spinning, with high-tech technology, to protect all the characteristics of natural fibers, it is moisture-absorbing and breathable, fabric drape, silk smooth, bright dyeing and other characteristics. Repeated washing, sunlight also does not lose many health functions, not easy to pilling.
35 Bamboo fiber: an environmentally friendly fiber, bamboo has antibacterial anti-purple line characteristics, in the fiber purification process with high-tech technology to protect with natural antibacterial antibacterial, deodorant and anti-ultraviolet substances, with strong breathable, fabric drape, silk smooth, bright dyeing, antibacterial, deodorant, anti-ultraviolet, repeated washing and drying also does not lose many functions.
36 Polyacrylonitrile fiber: commonly known as “artificial wool” with soft, warm, strong, good characteristics, the surface is flat, tight structure, not easy to deformation, after washing shrinkage is very small.
37 Wool sticky blended: with the line of pure wool fabric similar appearance style and basic features, more delicate appearance.
38 Polyester-cotton blended: can make up for the small moisture absorption of polyester, breathable and comfortable beauty of the shortcomings, the appearance of clean, thick feel, elastic, solid and durable, good conformability.
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