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What is textile? This is a big and complicate topic, The information on this article is about what is textile and to further break it down, it is divided into four core sections.
The first section is What is textile? Classification of Textiles. In the section you will learn all there is to know about the dimensions and methods of classifying textiles, and covering the textile industry expertise.
The second section has no technicalities involved. It focuses more on sharing the knowledge of textiles for apparels, this is something you will not easily find. This information will be very helpful for someone who is looking to venture into buying of garments. From this section, you will be confident to answer what is textile from a professional buyer’s view.
And in the third section comes the technical aspect. This is where we learn by practical to verify the quality and safety of textile like a professional. This will be the most authorized way to tell what is textile?
What is textile, contents are:
Table of Contents
To start to get the answer of what is textile? First, let’s understand texile, the classfication of textile, this section will cover the most comprehansive aspects about how to classfify textiles.
In lay man’s terms, textiles can be referred to as the three main series of woven, knitted fabrics and non-woven.
But extensively, textiles involves, spinning weaving and finished products, such as:
Let’s have an extensive look at the three methods of processing textile, this is for those who want to dive in deeper for the topic of what is textile.
I.) Knitted Fabrics: the yarn is woven into a circle and the fabric is formed and is divided into two, weft knit and warp knit.
As the yarns go horizontally, the fabric is formed by knitting a horizontal row of loops in the same pattern and direction with the bottom and top rows connected to each other. All of the loops are knitted form a single yarn. Weft knitting can either be done on a circular knitting machine or a flat one. Weft knitted fabrics are used in making sweaters, socks etc.
Fabrics that have been weft knitted hold the largest proportion when it comes to knitted products.
By far, what is textile? knitted fabrics are textiles, it has two types: weft knit and warp knit, cool, let’s continue!
II.) Woven Fabric: following the law of interwoven fabric, these are arranged vertically by each other, in other words a horizontal and vertical system of two yarns are in the loop. The likes of denim, hemp yarn, brocade satin and plate Si tweed and few examples of woven fabric. The classification methods of woven fabric are many and as follows;
Image source: https://successfulfashiondesigner.com/types-of-weave-structures/
Yes, if knitted fabric textiles are the right anwer to what is textile, plus woven fabric, this big segments, you are near to the complete anwer to what is textile.
III.) Non-woven: fibers are loose either by bonding or sewing. However, bonding and piercing are the two main methods used presently. This method of processing makes it a lot easier, improves labor productivity, reduces cost and has wider prospects for improved developments.
This kind of fabric doesn’t need to be spun and woven. Just the textile short fibers or filaments are either carefully directed or randomly arranged to create a fiber network structure. And then either mechanical, thermal or chemical bonding methods are introduced.
Non-woven farbics have three major applications:
Yeah, from here, you can be confident to say, plus non-woven fabric textiles, which are now playing a vital role in preventing the spread of COVID-19, by in the form of medical masks, you can the complete big answer to the question of what is textile, but to dig out more, you should keep reading, especially you are interested in more deeper facts of what is textile exactly.
Let’s back to the raw material to further understanding what is textile, the raw material view.
The raw material of the yarn that makes up the fabric are of three types: pure woven fabric, blended fabric, and interwoven fabric
The fabric can either be blank, that is (not dyed) or colored, meaning (it has been dyed).
What is textile? well, now we have blank textiles and colored textiles.
What is textile? the fiber view.
Natural fabric fiber:
Unnatural fabric fiber:
More about fabric fiber? please check this, this is the raw “genetic” aspects answering the question what is textile, then you can also answer questions about what is natural textile, what is man-made textile, and much more…
The above mentioned are a list of some of the most commonly used fabrics. With functional textiles they possess their own inherent unique value. Some of its extra functions are mite removal, antibacterial, antivirus, anti-moth, flame retardant, anti-wrinkle, oil and water repellent, negative ion health care amongst a host of other functions.
Read this guide on functional fabrics, technical textiles:
What is textile? then, you can anwer, there are general purpose textiles and technical textiles, what topic you want to know better? ask back!
What is textile? does textile has grade.
For newbies of textiles, we can simply put the level range as below:
When trying to compare between a good fabric and a regular fabric from a consumer’s or commercial view point, the difference isn’t that obvious. In some cases you even see a garment made out of regular fabric selling out quicker than one made from a good fabric. But when looked at with sound knowledge of fabrics and class, style and luxury, a non-natural fabric will not make it to the mat.
What this means is essence is, a fabric has to be 100% fiber before it is good enough. Any fabric with synthetic is fiber is not good enough. This can be likened to the world of jewelleries where all sort of semi-precious stones, aquamarines and tourmalines inclusive are not allowed on the mat. Simply because the stones are half precious.
Now the question is, what is the point of having 2% of other synthetic fiber in cotton? This is just to compensate for some of the disadvantages that cotton fabrics have. Of course this also has its advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is that you get to enjoy as high as 80% in quality of the fabric for an affordable price. Now the downside to this is that, the moment you get used to taste, there is no going back. For instance, we all know the value of a 24k gold, now you can downsize to an 18k gold and we all go home smiling, but it still doesn’t measure up to the worth of a 24k gold.
The future of the world has a lot to do with fitting in, but this is about business and not taste. One important thing you should know is you can’t afford a luxury item that only a small number of people can use. If such an item becomes popular, it becomes less valuable. Quite a number of people may say a jeans hoodie is perfect just because JOBS wears it, but they are unaware of the fact that JOBS goes to the white house putting on a suit and tie. And that the image he shows you in public is far from his complete image. And to think that his hoodie, which is a copy of the one in St. Croix is worth $175 but is made from the worst wool by Issey Miyake.
Because everyone wears a particular type of clothing doesn’t mean you too should wear it. Don’t always go with the crowd. For example, in the book “Style” it is easy for the upper class to spot a tiny bit of polyester in an Oxford shirt simply because it is a middle class sign. The Official Preppy Handbook had a lot of praises for JFK’s daughter, Caroline Kennedy, saying “she was more preppy than her mother in both dress and manner.” And this was because throughout her four years in Harvard Square she never wore anything that was made out of unnatural fiber.
Fibers like Tencel, Modal, Lysol, bamboo fiber are all synthetic fibers and not natural fibers. Although fabrics that are blended from natural fiber are still considered all good fabric like the silk cashmere blends.
Sometimes the value of fabric won’t be gotten from a single fabric. If a designer of leather and silk made them separately, the fabrics may not be worth much even if they are original. But if he puts them together, it becomes really expensive and this is because the physical properties of both fabrics are completely different. Being able to blend both is very classy.
As a buyer, you need to see things differently, so your answers to what is textile also differs, you will focus more on the application, so the following section will anwer the question of what is textile in the application way.
Island cotton (Egyptian cotton) is in general terms a long staple cotton. Long as in the Egyptian origin of GIZA 45 70 which is the real Egyptian cotton. Other countries in the cotton industry like United States and Peru referred to it as Pima cotton. But in North and South America as well as Australia’s long staple cotton is also called island cotton.
It is even more difficult for the general public to differentiate between the fabrics, because the above mentioned kinds of cotton fall under a wide category. Furthermore, China’s Xinjiang introduced the Egyptian cotton species in the market. In terms of yarn prices, the West Indian Sea Island cotton > Egyptian cotton GZ45 > Pima cotton > nominal Sea Island cotton > domestic Egyptian cotton. This isn’t really in line with the prices of fabrics and end product prices but a brief classification. The industry can be very confusing with all of these names.
Needle number has to do with the density of the fabric and represent with letters T and C. Way back, T is polyester and TC is cotton and a blend.
What is the meaning of 200 stitches? Take for instance, a piece of fabric from the British standard method will normally be marked 133*72. What this means is that the warp yarn has 133 roots and the weft yarn has 72 roots. But this doesn’t show the density as it only made mention of the number of roots.
The number of counts and needles complement each other, for a high count you will get high density, meaning 40s cotton fabric complements 200T, 250T. Just for reference purposes, below is a brief criterion that can be of use:
Not all clothes have counts on them and this is because their counts are usually very low, so they won’t be marked. But big brand are happy to mark out their count knowing that they used quality fabrics.
Hint: If the British method of standard density pays attention to the sum of two numbers outside the value. And also takes note of the front a number (warp number) but not the back of a number (weft number). The difference between them is a great.
Here is an example, an e-commerce or an online purchase platform advertises a 128*68 combed cotton twill with high quality and high density twill cotton fabric, high count yarn, high density fabric, moisture absorbing and comfortable, etc. All of these are just words and cannot be a high count yarn, high density, because the numerical value of 128*68 has completely countered the essence. So take note that everything has a standard which is why we advise you do well to ask for values directly when buying clothing online.
But you may also be able to differentiate without looking at values. Here’s how, pay attention to how the fabric of the cloth feels, look at the shine, check how comfortable it feels on the body. And overtime you would have gained the experience.
Millimetre (1 millimetre = 4.3056 g/m2, or mm for short) is the unit weight for silk. Any silk that is more than 12mm can be called heavyweight silk. The HERMAS women’s scarves and silk accessories are more than 22mm and for is the reason they are very expensive. However, the standard of silk isn’t gotten from the number of millimetres only, other factors like printing and dyeing are considered.
One thing you should know when talking about wool fabric is that it can only be wool and nothing else. The likes of fur, rabbit fur shouldn’t be mentioned when talking about woollen fabrics. Furthermore, wool and cashmere cannot be compared, as cashmere is eight times as warm as wool and one fifth as heavy.
One way to know a good and bad cashmere wool fabric in general is by calculating the number of counts. As a matter of fact, it is in the fineness of the fiber, like the finer the better and the more expensive. Most people find winter wear wool coats to be very uncomfortable and heavy, but this is because they purchase bad wool with no counts to speak of.
One more thing about wool and cashmere is there are countable. And can be categorised by grade from low to high as seen below:
The wool that is the closest to cashmere is called Merino wool. Yet again figures are used to determine which is which. Just like the diameter of a human hair is about 75 microns, same is applied with cashmere as it starts at 17 microns. But a cashmere of 15 microns is still of good quality. Merino wool can be as high as 20 microns in diameter, still serve same purpose and more productive than cashmere. Merino wool can suffice as an alternative to cashmere.
Out of all the wool fabrics that have been listed above, one wool fabric that is like the boss of all wool fabrics is the alpaca wool.
So now, again, what is textile? Aha, it depends on your pocket, you want the top-class textile?
Alpaca wool is like soft gold, has a very fine vicuna and with less than 11 microns is way more expensive than cashmere. It doesn’t puff up or shrink too much. Below is how alpacas are ranked:
Below are a few practical tips to follow when purchasing wool cashmere:
British fabrics; thicker and heavier, best for autumn and winter.
Italian fabrics; lighter and thinner, best suited for spring and summer.
Wow, you have complete the buyer’s view on what is textile, do not stop, what is textile? let’s move on.
The list below are terms and concepts that are common in textile, which can also help you understand what is textile better:
The warp is the direction of the fabric length, the yarn is called warp yarn and warp yarn density is one inch within the arrangement of the yarn roots for the warp density.
The weft is the direction of the width of the fabric, the yarn is called weft yarn and the number of rows of yarn within 1 inch is the weft density.
is the number of roots that represent the woven fabric per unit length of the yarn. It is usually 1 inch or 10 centimeters within the number of roots of the yarn. In china, the national standard provided for use is in 10 centimeters, but textile industries are more familiar and comfortable using 1 inch within the number of roots of the yarn to show the density. For example, “45×45/108×58” means that the warp and weft yarn are both 45 and the warp and weft density are 108 and 58 respectively.
this is has to do with the width of the fabric. The width is generally measured in inches or centimeters like 36 inches, 44 inches, 56 inches, and 60 inches. Width is commonly marked in the density of the cloth from the back, for example fabric added to width as show here; “45×45/108×58/60” indicates that the width is 60 inches.
the GSM gram weight of the fabric is basically the gram of the weight of the square meter fabric. The gram weight is a very important technical indicator for fabrics that are knitted. Coarse wool also makes use of gram weight as an important technical indicator. While Denim fabric gram weight is commonly used to express the number of ounces per square yard of fabric weight, for example, 7 ounces or 12 ounces of Denim, and so on.
this was called “first dyed fabric” by the Japanese. And refers to the first yarn or filament right after dyeing. After which color yarn is used for the weaving process, also known as color woven fabric. The production of color woven fabric can also be referred to as dyeing plant like Denim, and other shirt fabric that are color woven fabric.
These terms are useful when you are in the textile business, they will be your weapons to help the whosaler understand your requirements better.
Finally, we come to the most authorized part to answer the question of what is textile.
This will the most authorited way, not only to help you identify what is textile, but also the trustable standard way to tell what is good textile, what is bad textile.
An expert or professional laboratory personnel is needed in order to carry out testing for quality textiles. The use of professional testing equipment in line with the appropriate market and national standards is applied.
General textile testing involves the following;
to carry out testing of the physical properties, the following are involved in the process; the density, yarn count, gram weight, yarn twist, yarn fabric, fabric structure, fabric coverage coefficient, weave shrinkage or fabric wrinkle, seam slip, tear strength, anti-crochet, yarn density strength, stiffness test, leak resistance, elasticity, recovery, permeability, garment flammability, bursting strength, water penetration, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, coil strength, thickness of fabric, etc.
this also refers to chemical property analysis and includes checking for PH content, lead content, azo dye test, heavy metal content test, water absorption, moisture content, odor, heat pressure, dry heat, acid spot, water spot, formaldehyde content, phenolic yellowing, storage sublimation, and many more.
includes washing machine dimensional stability, dry cleaning dimensional stability, steam dimensional stability, and hand washing dimensional stability.
what this basically entails is how fast the color washes off, if it is affected by chlorine water or not, how quickly it reacts to soap when washing or dry cleaning and so on.
the following are tested; cotton, wool, silk, linen, polyester, viscose, spandex, nylon, the composition and content of fabric, yarn twist, and the likes.
items like azo dyes, allergenic dyes, extractable heavy metals, organotin compounds, total lead, total cadmium, carcinogenic dyes, pentachlorophenol, chloro-toluene phthalate plasticizers and hexavalent chromium are not allowed.
Know more from our website main category: textile testing instruments
Ok, we have covered the topic of what is textile, but just like many of us, you may have the question of what is fabric, what’s the defference between fabric and textile? With our long year standing and counting in the manufacturing, testing and research industry, we’ve come to figure out a significant challenge that’s faced by buyers who buys textile testing equipment so far has been with difficulty in differentiating between textile and fabric.
From the earliest times, people have used fabrics of different types to cover, heat, personal adornments and even to exhibit personal wealth. But recently, fabrics are still used for these purposes, and everyone is a final consumer.
Depending on the weather, we use different types of fabrics, such as wool for winter, cotton for summer, etc. We also use an umbrella and a raincoat to protect us from the rain. These are also made from other types of fabrics that are commonly called textiles. Here, I will discuss the difference between textile and fabric from two aspects: the definition of name and the application of testing.
In a narrow sense, textiles are the products of textile fiber that have been processed and woven, which can be divided into two categories: woven fabric and knitted fabric.
Broadly speaking, textiles are from spinning to weaving to manufactured goods, that is, all textile materials and manufactured goods, including:
1 Yarn, thread, natural silk, rayon, chemical fiber short-length silk, elastic silk, metal wire, and other textile raw materials.
2 Knitted fabrics, woven fabrics, non-woven fabrics, natural fur fabrics, plastic fabrics, industrial fabrics(for industrial textiles, such as canopy cloth, gun clothing, filter cloth, screen, roadbed cloth, etc.), agriculture, medical textiles and so on.
3 Clothing, clothing accessories, household textiles, decorative cloth products, gloves, hats, socks, bags, blankets, and other manufactured products.
4 Other Textiles: cloth toys, lighting, crafts, plastic products; hand crocheted, kraft silk, belts, ropes, belts, Sewing threads, Embroidery Thread, etc.
Three Classification methods of Textiles
1 According to the structure, the materials, processing technology, texture, appearance and main uses of textiles, it can be divided into 14 categories.
2 According to the use of textiles, it can be divided into clothing textiles, decorative textiles, industrial textiles.
3 According to the production of textiles, it can be divided into line, belt, chenille, woven fabric, and textile cloth, etc.
Fabric is a flat-film mass made up of fine-soft objects through intersecting, winding, and joining. Woven fabrics are made up of intersecting yarns. Knitted fabrics are made up of winding yarns. A non-woven fabric is made up of yarns connected to each other. The third fabric consists of yarns with an intersecting and winding relationship.
After many yarns constitute a stable relationship, it forms the fabric. Intersecting, winding and joining are three relationships that can make the yarns to form a stable structure. By analyzing the yarn group and its running direction, running rule and forming relationships in fabric, we can understand all kinds of fabrics clearly.
Fabrics are products made with different techniques such as knitting, weaving, crochet, etc. Most fabrics are woven or woven, but there is also another type of fabric called non-woven. Non-woven materials are produced by braiding, felting, twisting. However, all over the world, the fabric refers to the fabric used to make the dresses.
On the Test Application
If you are purchasing some testing equipment and still skeptical about how to differentiate between the fibre and textile. From the figure above, we can see that textiles are everywhere, from fiber to yarn, from cloth to clothing, from medical treatment to industry and various industries. If there is no strict quality test in the production process for the textile, we can’t imagine what our life will look like. Fabric testing is obviously only one aspect of textile testing, is a link to test the textile quality, but it is the most common and important link.
All in all, not all textile are fabric, while all fabric is textile.
Through this article, hope we have covered the major contents about “what is textile”, and if we have ever missed any topic, please help us by leaving a kind comment, we wish to make this articl the real ultimate guide on what is textile.