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Textiles Fiber Composition – Labeling and Identification
In the international trade of textiles, there are clear regulations on fiber composition labeling and identification, in order to reduce and avoid losses due to labeling specifications, it is necessary to pay attention to the composition labeling of textiles. This article details the regulations of textile composition labeling and identification.
Table of Contents
★ The regulations for textile labeling regulations of the U.S. market
In the U.S. market, there are mainly “The Textile Products Identification Act 15 U.S.C. § 70”, “16C.F.R. part303 Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products”, “The Wool Products Labeling Act of 15U.S.C. § 68” and “16C.F.R. part300 Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act”, which have more specific provisions that require the most textiles and wool products sold in the United States should be labeled.
The above four textile labeling regulations apply to all fibers, yarns, fabrics, clothing products, curtains and draperies and other household textiles in the U.S. market, as well as every product or part of a product containing wool or recycled wool.
2 Requirements of labeling
2.1 The label must be affixed to each textile product, when required, in a suitable manner on the package. The label should be eye-catching, labeling the name of the fiber and content of the font should be the same size, and in the packaging, transportation, sales to the final consumer throughout the process, the label must be strong and durable, shall not fall off, blurred, defective, unavailable or inconspicuous, etc.
2.2 For products with collars, the label is generally affixed to the middle part of the collar, or to a location between the shoulder seam and the center of the inside of the neck. The country of origin must always appear on the front of the label, other information can be on the front or back of the label, but must be easy to see.
2.3 Label design, illustrations shall not be crowded and mixed, printing or graphics shall not be blurred.
2.4 Fibers not used in the textile products, the label must not appear related words, innovative words, symbols, or names similar to the spelling, pronunciation, or name of the fiber, implied names, and names associated with fur animals for traditional reasons.
2.5 All information text is required to be in English, and if other languages are to be used, they should be marked together with the English language. Abbreviations, ditto marks and asterisks are prohibited for the description of fiber composition.
2.6 Correct and true fiber descriptions can be used in conjunction with common names, such as “100% corval”, “100% combed cotton”, “100% nylon 66”, etc.
2.7 Fiber trademarks can be used on the label and used in conjunction with the common name of the fiber, but the complete fiber content should appear before the common name, the font size and clarity must be uniform, such as “80% Cotton, 20% lycra spandex” and so on.
3 Label identification of different kinds of fibers
3.1 Use “All” or “100%”
If the textile fiber products consist entirely of fiber, you can use “all” or “100%” for labeling, such as “100% cotton”, “All viscose”. If it contains no more than 5% of decorative fibers, you can use “exclusive of ornamentation” or words of similar meaning, the content of decorative fibers can not be marked, such as “all wool, exclusive of ornamentation”, “100% wool, exclusive of ornamentation”.
3.2 The use of “Virgin” or “New
The terms “Virgin” or “New” cannot be used when the textile product or part of the product is not composed entirely of new or unused fibers, regardless of how the product is woven, knitted, felted, braided, or otherwise manufactured or used.
3.3 Principle of 5% fiber content
When the fiber content of less than 5%, you can not use the common name, available “other fiber” to say. When the product has more than one such fiber, the common use of “other fibers” to say. For example: “96% polyester, 4% cotton” can also be marked as “96% polyester, 4% other fibers”, “92% polyester, 4% cotton, 4% viscose” can also be marked as “92% polyester, 8% other fibers”.
For important fibers with clear functions, such as elastic fibers and functional fibers, although its content is less than 5%, but also should indicate the components, such as “96% acetate, 4% spandex”. If the product contains wool, the actual content must be marked, such as “97% cotton, 3% wool”.
ornamentation refers to the fiber or yarn embedded in the yarn or fabric and visible. When the ornamentation does not exceed 5% of the total fiber mass of the product, its content can not be marked, but the presence of ornamentations must be marked on the label or description, such as “60% cotton, 40% rayon, exclusive of ornamentation”. When stating the percentage of decorative fibers of all fiber mass, the ornamentation part of the content should be stated, such as “70% compound wool, 30% acetic acid, exclusive of 4% metallic ornamentation.” ornamentation fiber content of more than 5%, should be marked its content. When the ornamentation is a separate part of the product, the fiber content of this part should be marked.
When wool is applied as ornamentation, whether used in fiber, yarn, or decorative trim, including lace, lace, satin trim, piping and embroidery, even if the content does not exceed 5%, it should be marked.
3.5 Home and furniture textiles
Shawls and other home textile accessories, including knitted garters and elastic fibers, sewing thread; ornamentation parts, such as embroidery, covering, applique, etc.; embroidered on the fabric decorative patterns or design schemes, decorative patterns or design area does not exceed 15% of the surface area of home textiles, can be marked “exclusive of ornamentation”.
When the main body of the composition of the fabric elastic material does not exceed 20% of the surface area of home textiles, can be marked “exclusive of ornamentation”.
3.6 Handmade accessories
Fabric or decorative cloth for specific customer manual operation manufacturing, as well as the length, does not exceed 100 yards (91.44m), fiber labeling content according to the fiber quality in order, do not have to label fiber content, “other fibers” written at the end, such as “viscose, wool, vinyl, metal fiber, metal fiber. Other fibers”.
3.7 Interlining, inning, interlayer, and padding
If the role of the lining, interlining, interlayer or padding in the product is warm, rather than the product structure purposes, the content should be clearly marked separately, such as “100% nylon lining, 100% rayon padding, 100% rayon”.
If it contains wool, even if only for structural purposes of the lining, interlayer, filler, but also in order to mark the fiber content, such as “100% wool front, 90% polyester, 10% wool lining”.
3.8 Covering fabric with backing, padding
Covering fabric with backing, padding, should indicate the front pile surface, or the outer surface, rather than the back pile surface, such as “100% cotton lint front: 60% viscose, 40% cotton”, “outer surface: 100% wool”.
3.9 Containing added fibers
Textile fiber products in some parts of a slight proportion of fiber content overlay or added to the product, for reinforcement or other purposes, the product can be labeled according to the specified primary fiber or blended fiber content, and labeled its percentage content, the overlay or added fiber can not be labeled, but should indicate the overlay or added fiber parts, such as “55% cotton, 45% rayon, except for 5% nylon added to the toe and heel”.
3.10 Pile fabric
For the pile fabric or fiber composition of the product, the fiber content of the front or pile surface and the fiber content of the backing surface should be stated separately, indicating their respective percentages and indicating the ratio of the front and back, such as “100% nylon pile, 100% cotton backing (60% of the backing, 40% of the pile)”.
3.11 Composite fibers
Composite fibers are physical combinations or more than two different chemical components or mixtures, the fiber content of these expressed as “two-component fibers” or “multi-component fibers,” with the specified common name in the order of fiber content priority description of the composition of the fiber, as well as the description of fiber content.
If the composition of these fibers is matrix-primary fiber structure, the term “matrix-primary fiber” or “matrix fiber” can be used to describe information about the fiber composition, such as “100% two-component fiber (65% nylon, 35% polyester)”, “80% matrix fiber (60% nylon, 40% polyester), 15% polyester, 5% viscose”.
3.12 Elastomer marking
Textile products are completely elastic yarn, only a small part of the non-elastic yarn, which should be marked with the percentage of elastomer, together with all other yarns or material percentage.
Part of the textile fiber consists of elastic materials, another part of other fibers, the fiber content of such fabrics should be identified separately, and should be arranged in order of fiber content, elastomer in the last, such as “front and back of the non-elastic part: 50% acrylate / 50% cotton, elastic part: viscose, cotton, nylon, rubber”.
3.13 Use of “Cashmere” and “mohair”
If the wool products contain mohair (Angora goat) or cashmere (cashmere goat) or special fibers (camel, alpaca, alpaca and other camel and horse animal hair fiber), the name of the special fiber can be used to mark. If the fiber is reused, indicate the reuse in front of this name. Such as “50% mohair, 50% wool”, “60% cotton, 40% reuse cashmere”, cashmere, mohair, camel hair, alpaca hair, alpaca hair, camel hair and wool blend, must be accurately marked with their respective percentage content, such as “90% wool, 10% cashmere”.
3.14 Labeling of sets of products
Sets of products containing two or more parts, and each part has a different fiber content, each product should have its own separate fiber content label.
Sets of products containing two or more parts, when each product is sold as a separate product, each product shall have its own individual fiber content label.
Sets of products containing two or more parts, when each product contains the same fiber content, only the fiber content information needs to be labeled on one of the parts.
Textile products should have complete packaging before they are sold and shipped, and then before they are used in the end. Each package of textile products (except socks) together with the outside of the bag should be marked with the required information. If the package is transparent and the required information about the textile product can be seen inside, the package does not need to be marked.
3.16 Products containing reused materials
Any decorated product, mattress, seat cushion or any product using used materials, a large mark or label should be firmly attached to the product with a label area of at least 2inch (5.08cm) x 3inch (7.62cm), using not less than 1/3inch (8.38mm) size of the English font, indicating that all or part of the material is “reused material”, or “second-hand use material”, “previously used material”, or “used material”.
3.17 Products containing unknown fibers
Textile products made of scraps, rags, second-hand materials, or unknown waste, the fiber content cannot be determined, it must be specified in the labeling. When containing a known percentage or can be determined the fiber, should be marked separately the content of each part, such as “45% viscose, 30% acetic acid, 25% unknown fiber”.
3.18 Reused fiber of wool products
When the chemical fibers in wool products are reused from textile products, and the quality is not determined, it should be marked as “chemical fibers”, and according to the quality of priority for identification, such as “60% wool, 40% chemical fibers (viscose, vinyl, nylon).
When the fiber of non-wool part is unknown, marked as “unknown multiple fibers” or “uncertain multiple fibers”, the percentage listed at the end, such as “35% wool, 45% vinyl acetate, 20% unknown multiple fibers”.
★ The regulations for textile labeling regulations of EU market
In the EU market, there are 20 provisions of Directive 2008/121/EC, which stipulates the standard names of each textile fiber and the method of marking in garments, etc., and implements uniform rules within the EU member states to unify the names of textile fibers. Only textiles that comply with the provisions of the above decree regulations are allowed to be sold within the EU market.
The Directive applies to the following textile products: any raw materials, semi-treated products, treated products, semi-finished products, finished products, semi-products or products consisting exclusively of textile fibers, regardless of the blending method or spinning method of textiles, including textile fibers and textile fibers with a mass percentage of 80% and above.
2008/121/EC specifies that: textiles exported to third countries; textiles entering member states due to transit and under control; textiles imported by a third country, for reprocessing of textiles; according to the contract signed to individuals working in their own homes, or independent companies, these individuals and companies engaged in processing textiles from raw materials without regard to product ownership, can not be marked.
2 Requirements of labeling
2.1 Textiles placed on the market for production or commercial use need to be labeled or marked; when the products are not sold to the final consumer, or when they are delivered to a legal person or equivalent entity under state or some other public law according to an order, the label may be replaced or supplemented by accompanying commercial documents.
2.2 It should identify the name of the textile fiber content, describe the specific details, and need to use clear, easy to read and uniform printing to identify.
2.3 No abbreviations in labels, sales contracts, bills, and invoices.
2.4 The name of the trademark or establishment may be marked before or after the fiber label, but neither the trademark nor establishment name nor its root word or its adjective should be confused with the product name.
2.5 When textiles are sold within the EU member states to the final consumer, their national language should be used in the label and logo. Among them, the national language is chosen for sewing, mending and embroidery threads in the form of tubes, reels, bundles, balls or any other small quantities, only for centralized labeling on the packaging or nameplate. If sewing, mending and embroidery threads not exceeding 1g are centrally labeled, the label can be used in any of the languages of the EU Community.
3 Label identification of different kinds of fibers
3.1 Use of “all”, “pure” or “100%”
Textiles containing only one type of fiber can be marked with the words “100%”, “pure” or “all”, such as: ” 100% cotton”, “all viscose”. When the textiles need to add a certain amount of other fibers because of technical reasons, the directive on the amount of other fibers allowed: 2% of other fibers allowed for general textiles, 5% of other fibers allowed for coarse textiles.
3.2 Use of “fleece wool” and “virgin wool”
When the fibers in the wool products are not added to other products before processing, and in addition to the product processing without any spinning or felting process, in the handling and use of the process is not damaged, the wool products can be described as “fleece wool” and “virgin wool”, or the use of other member states to express the same meaning of the language.
For blended products, the above name can be used when the wool in them meets the requirements, i.e., the content of wool is not less than 25%, and wool is blended with only one of the fibers. Other fiber impurities in the manufacturing process mixed in the wool products should be kept within 0.3%, including the carded wool.
3.3 Principle of 85% fiber content
When the textile is composed of two or more fibers, one of the fiber content of not less than 85% of the total mass, the textile can have three identification methods: after the name of the fiber to indicate its quality percentage, or marked “at least 85%”, or marked the content of the product components, such as “90% polyester, 10% cotton”, can also be marked as “90% polyester” or “at least 85% polyester”.
3.4 Labeling of “other fibers”
If there is no one fiber content of 85% in blended textiles, it should be marked at least two of the main fiber name and quality percentage, followed write the name of other fibers by the order of quality. However, when the content of various fibers is less than 10%, with “other fibers” uniformly marked, or give the percentage of each fiber. For example: “60% viscose, 33% nylon, 3% cotton, 4% Lyser”, can also be marked as “60% viscose, 33% nylon, 7% other fibers.
3.5 Cotton and linen interwoven
For products containing wrap pure cotton and weft pure linen, if the percentage of linen is not less than 40% of the total content of the fabric without sizing, the label of the product should be “cotton and linen interwoven”, and must be accompanied by the composition specifications, such as: “pure cotton warp-pure linen weft”.
3.6 Identification of “mixed fibers” or “unspecified textile composition”
For the textile products that are not easy to identify their composition in the processing, this can be identified by the term “mixed fibers” or “unspecified textile composition”, such as “80% viscose, 20% unspecified textile composition”, “all unknown mixed fibers”.
3.7 Pure decorative fibers and antistatic fibers
Fibers that are purely decorative and not more than 7% of the finished product mass of visible, separable do not need to be marked in the fiber composition. Fibers that are added to obtain antistatic effects and do not exceed 2% of the finished product mass (e.g. metallic fibers) are also not required to be marked in the fiber composition.
3.8 Multi-part textiles
Textiles are made up of two or more parts that have different fibers, each part should have a separate fiber content label. Except for the main lining, this labeling is not mandatory for parts that are less than 30% of the total mass of the product.
Products containing two or more sections, when each product contains the same fiber content, only the fiber content information needs to be labeled on one of the sections.
3.9 Tight clothes
For the following tight clothes (including their components), the fiber composition identification should state the composition of the entire product, or by concentrating or separately stating the composition of said components.
Brassiere: the outside and inside fibers of the cups and behind the body.
Corset underwear: material panels that stiffen the front, back and sides.
With brassiere and corset underwear: fibers on the outside and inside of the cups, panels of material that stiffen the front and back, and side panels.
The fiber identification of other tights clothes should be indicated by stating the composition of the entire product, or by stating the fiber composition of each component of these clothes, either centrally or separately. Such labeling is not mandatory for parts that are less than 10% of the total mass of the product.
The labeling of the different parts of the tight clothes should make it clear to the end consumer which part of the product the specific details of the label refer to.
3.10 Embroidered textiles
The fiber composition of embroidered textiles can be marked by the composition of the base fabric fiber and the embroidery thread respectively, and these parts must be marked with the fiber name, such as “embroidery thread: 100% cotton base fabric: 100% polyester”. If the embroidered part is less than 10% of the surface area of the product, only the composition of the base fabric fibers needs to be marked.
3.11 Yarn labeling
Core yarns made of different fibers need to be labeled with the composition of the core yarn, and the fiber name must be used to label these parts, such as “core: 100% spandex”.
3.12 Velvet and plush
Textiles of velvet and plush textiles or of imitation velvet or plush, the fiber identification should be used as a whole, and for products made up of different fibers backing and using the surface, which can be marked separately the composition of these two parts, and must be marked with the name of the fiber to these parts, such as “velvet: 60% polyester, 40% viscose, backing: 100% polyester”.
The fiber composition of carpets whose backing and use side is composed of different fibers can be marked only on the use side, and the non-use side can be unmarked, such as “front side: 100% wool”.
3.14 Textiles containing fatty substances, binding, weighting, shaping and finishing, dip-dyed products, additional dyeing and printing products, as well as other textile treatment products, which should take all necessary measures to ensure that these substances do not appear in large quantities to mislead consumers.
3.15 Materials that stiffen and reinforce textiles can be left unmarked. These are threads and materials that are added at specific and restricted points of the textile to make the textile strong or thicker.
★ The common name of the fiber
The common name of fiber only corresponds to the specified essential characteristics of the fiber, can not be used for other fibers, the label of the textile identification must use the common name.
The common names of commonly used fiber standards in the market
|U.S. market||EU market|
|Nylon||Nylon / Polyamides|
★ Fiber content tolerance
Fineness Analysis System complies with AATCC 20/20A, ISO 137, ISO 17751, IWTO-8-97, etc. Fineness & Content Analysis System is based on digital image technology and interactive operation, to determine the fineness of fiber and analyze the content and surface feature of textile fiber.
1 Textile product containing more than one fiber, any fiber content tolerance allowed for 3%. Such as “60% polyester, 40% cotton”, then the label of the two fibers content allowed of “polyester 57% ~ 63%, cotton 37% ~ 43%”.
2 In the U.S. market, when the textile product consists entirely of fiber (except for the decorative part), no fiber tolerance is allowed. If the fiber content is marked as 100% nylon, it is not allowed to contain any other fibers. While the EU market allows the proportion of other fiber impurities to not exceed 2% of the total mass of the textile, as long as the technical basis for the amount is reasonable, and non-specialized processes to join. If the textile has been carded, this error can be increased to 5%. For pure wool products or fiber blends containing wool, the 0.3% fiber impurity error limit remains in effect.
In the process of globalization trade, textile exports should be a detailed understanding of the relevant provisions of the market for textile fiber labeling, for different products, you should choose the correct way of labeling to avoid incurring losses due to improper use of the identification.
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