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Tensile Testing:The Ultimate Guided
In this guide, you will learn the purpose of Tensile Testing Machine, and the detailed steps of the testing process, helps you better understand the information of your material. This post is concerned with the following.
Table of contents
Purpose of Tensile Testing Machine：What is the use of tensile testing machine
Tensile testing related concepts and terminology
The structure of the tensile testing machine:
How to use the tension tester:
What are the factors affecting tensile strength in tensile testing?
Common test standards for tensile testing
1.Purpose of Tensile Testing Machine：What is the use of tensile testing machine?
Another name for Tensile Testing Machine is universal tensile testing machine. it is a mechanical afterburner used for tensile, compression, bending, shearing and peeling tests of metallic and non-metallic materials.It is widely used in scientific research institutes, commodity inspection and arbitration institutions, colleges and universities, as well as rubber, tire, plastic, wire and cable, shoemaking, leather, textile, packaging, building materials, petrochemical, aviation and other industries.
The data obtained from the tensile test can be used to determine the elastic limit, elongation, modulus of elasticity, proportional limit, area reduction, tensile strength, yield point, yield strength and other tensile properties of the material.It is a testing equipment for material development, physical property testing, teaching research, quality control, incoming inspection, random inspection of production lines, etc.
2.Tensile testing related concepts and terminology
Tensile strength: This is the maximum stress that a material can withstand before breaking under an axial tensile load. It is typically measured in units of stress, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa).
Elastic modulus: This is a measure of the material’s resistance to deformation when subjected to an axial tensile load. It is typically measured in units of stress, such as gigapascals (GPa) or megapascals (MPa).
Yield strength: This is the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically and no longer returns to its original shape when the load is removed.
Strain: This is a measure of the deformation of a material when subjected to an axial tensile load. It is typically expressed as a fraction or a percentage of the original length of the sample.
Stress-strain curve: This is a graph that plots the stress and strain of a material as it is subjected to an axial tensile load. The stress-strain curve provides valuable information about the mechanical properties of a material, such as its tensile strength, elastic modulus, and yield strength.
Ultimate tensile strength: This is the maximum tensile stress that a material can withstand before breaking.
Toughness: This is a measure of the energy required to break a material under an axial tensile load. It is typically expressed in units of energy per unit volume, such as joules per cubic meter (J/m³).
Ductility: This is a measure of the ability of a material to deform plastically without breaking under an axial tensile load. It is typically expressed as a fraction or percentage of the total elongation of the sample.
Necking: This is a phenomenon that occurs in some materials when they are subjected to an axial tensile load. Necking is characterized by a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the sample as it elongates.
Fatigue: This is the process by which a material becomes weakened and eventually fails due to repeated cyclic loading.
3.The structure of the tensile testing machine
The tensile strength machine is an indispensable testing equipment for material development, physical properties testing, teaching and research, quality control, etc. The universal tensile testing machine is very widely used and can be used to test the following kinds of materials.The basic setup of a tension test involves clamping a specimen of the material to be tested between two grips of a testing machine, and then applying a continuously increasing load along the length of the specimen. The load and corresponding extension or deformation of the specimen are recorded during the test, and the data is used to calculate various mechanical properties.The machine typically consists
of several main components, including:
Load frame: This is the main structure of the machine, which provides the means to apply tensile force to a specimen.
Crosshead: This is a moving component that holds the specimen and applies the tensile force to it. It is mounted on guides or linear bearings to ensure smooth movement.
Specimen grips: The specimen grips holds the specimen in place, allowing it to be subjected to tensile force without slipping. There are several types of grips, including pneumatic grips, hydraulic grips, and screw-operated grips.
Drive System: The drive system is responsible for providing the tensile force to the specimen. This can be achieved through several means, including hydraulic cylinders, linear motors, or screw drives.
Load Cell: A load cell is a type of transducer that measures the applied force. It is usually connected to the crosshead and provides a signal that can be used to control the drive system and to record the load-displacement curve.
Control Unit: The control unit is the central processing unit of the tensile testing machine. It receives signals from the load cell, drives the drive system, and records the test data.
Data Acquisition System: The data acquisition system collects and records the test data, which typically includes the applied load and the specimen’s displacement.
In addition to these core components, tensile testing machines may also include features such as temperature control, environmental chambers, and automatic data analysis software. The specific configuration and features of a tensile testing machine can vary widely depending on the application and the material being tested.
4.How to use the tension tester:
(1)Prepare the specimen:
A standard-sized and shaped specimen is cut from the material to be tested. The specimen is usually cylindrical or rectangular in shape, with a reduced section in the middle to ensure that the maximum stress is applied to the reduced section.
Sampling directly from the raw material.
Samples are taken from important areas on the product (the weakest and most dangerous parts).
Direct testing with physical parts, e.g. reinforcement bars, bolts, screws or chains.
Testing directly on cast specimens or by machining into specimens.
Processing of specimens
To prevent the mechanical properties from being affected by cold deformation or heat. Usually machined mainly by cutting.
Parallel sections should be smooth, free from work hardening, and free from defects such as chips, tool marks and burrs.
The brittle material clamping part and the parallel section part should have a large radius of round transition.
For non-machined casting specimens, the surface of the sand, slag, burrs, flying edges, etc. must be clear.
Specimen inspection and marking
The specimen should be checked before the test to ensure that its appearance meets the requirements.
The original markings of the specimens are generally marked with fine lines and the method used must not affect the premature fracture of the specimen.
For extra thin or brittle materials, the specimen can be coated with a fast drying colouring paint in parallel sections and then gently scribed with a marking line.
In addition: the original cross-sectional area So of the specimen needs to be measured and calculated before the test.
(2)Turn on the main switch.
(3)According to the sample, select the measuring range, hang or remove the swing on the swing rod, adjust the handle of the buffer valve, and align with the marking line.Clamp one end of the sample in the upper jaw.The specimen is clamped between the grips of the testing machine, with the reduced section positioned in the center. The grips are adjusted so that the specimen is centered and held tightly in place.
(4)Install the corresponding chuck into the upper and lower jaw seats according to the shape and size of the sample.
(5)On the rotary drum of the plotter, roll and press the recording paper (square paper). This item is only carried out when necessary.
(6)Start the oil pump and align the pointer with the zero point of the dial.Unscrew the oil supply valve to raise the test bench by 10mm, and then close the oil valve. If the test bench is in the raised position, it is not necessary to open the oil pump to supply oil first, just close the oil supply valve.
(7)Check and test run: Check that the above steps are completed. Start the pulling machine and preload a small amount (the load corresponding to the stress must not exceed the proportional limit of the material) and then unload to zero in order to check that the pulling machine is working properly.
(8)Start the tensioning machine and carry out the tension test.
(9)Remove the test piece and the recording paper.
(10)Measure the post-break distance with vernier calipers.
(11)Measure the minimum diameter at the neck shrinkage with vernier calipers.
(12)Plot the stress-strain curve: The load data is used to calculate the stress in the specimen, and the extension data is used to calculate the strain. The stress and strain data is plotted on a graph, which is called a stress-strain curve.
(13)Determine the mechanical properties: From the stress-strain curve, various mechanical properties can be determined, such as the tensile strength, yield strength, and ductility. The tensile strength is the maximum stress that the material can withstand without breaking, and the yield strength is the stress at which the material begins to deform plastically. The ductility is a measure of the material’s ability to deform without breaking.
Testing machine Fabric Tensile Strength Tester TF002
Fabric tensile strength tester, or fabric tensile strength machine, also named tensile strength testing machine is designed to test a wide range of materials, including fabric, leather, plastic, paper, etc, in tension, compression, flexure, bursting, shear, tear, elongation, constant load, elastic, thread slip, peeling and other mechanical properties. Fabric Tensile Strength Tester complies with ISO 13934.1/2, ISO 13935.1/2, ISO 9073.3/4, etc.
It is used to test the tensile and compressive physical properties of products and materials.A complete set of double-column frame with compact structure and high rigidity (double space can be customized).A set of maintenance-free Panasonic servo motors and drives.Two imported high-precision ball screws with precision preload.One high-precision tension and compression two-way load sensor imported from the United States with automatic identification function. A set of digital open loop or closed loop controllers that can be switched in multiple languages and units.A portable remote control for convenient and quick operation.
5.The main factors affecting the tensile test machine tensile test
The main factors affecting the tensile test of the tensile testing machine are sampling area and sampling method, sample shape, size, accuracy, measuring equipment, test equipment, test environment temperature, fixtures, instrument selection, work piece clamping method Traction speed Cross-sectional area,The cross-sectional area of the tensile specimen..
Sample geometry: The shape, size, and orientation of the sample can influence the results of a tensile test. For example, a long, thin sample may behave differently under tension than a short, thick sample of the same material.
Surface condition: The surface of the sample should be smooth and free of defects, such as cracks, nicks, or burrs, to ensure accurate test results.
Loading rate: The rate at which the load is applied can affect the results of a tensile test. For example, a fast loading rate may result in different results than a slow loading rate.
Temperature: The temperature of the sample during testing can affect its mechanical properties. For example, a hot sample may be more ductile than a cold sample of the same material.
Humidity: High humidity levels can affect the results of a tensile test, as moisture can penetrate into the sample and change its mechanical properties.
Machine condition: The condition of the tensile testing machine can also affect the results of a tensile test. For example, worn grips or load cells may produce inaccurate results.
Specimen alignment: The alignment of the specimen in the grips of the tensile testing machine can affect the results of a tensile test. The specimen should be aligned properly to ensure that the load is applied in the correct direction.
Load and displacement measurement: The accuracy of the load and displacement measurements is crucial for obtaining accurate results from a tensile test. The load cells and displacement sensors used in a tensile testing machine should be regularly calibrated to ensure accurate measurements.
6.Common test standards for tensile testing
Tensile testing is a common method for evaluating the mechanical properties of materials, and there are several standard test methods that have been developed to ensure that test results are accurate and consistent. Here are some of the most commonly used standards for tensile testing:
ASTM E8/E8M: This is a standard test method for tension testing of metallic materials. It covers the preparation of the test specimens, the procedures for conducting the test, and the calculation and reporting of test results.
ISO 6892: This is an international standard for tension testing of metallic materials. It covers the preparation of test specimens, the testing procedures, and the calculation and reporting of results.
JIS Z 2241: This is a Japanese standard for tension testing of metallic materials. It covers the preparation of test specimens, the testing procedures, and the calculation and reporting of results.
ASTM D638: This is a standard test method for tension testing of plastics. It covers the preparation of test specimens, the procedures for conducting the test, and the calculation and reporting of test results.
ASTM D3039: This is a standard test method for tension testing of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. It covers the preparation of test specimens, the procedures for conducting the test, and the calculation and reporting of test results.
ISO 527: This is an international standard for tension testing of plastics. It covers the preparation of test specimens, the testing procedures, and the calculation and reporting of results.
ASTM D882: This is a standard test method for tension testing of thin plastic sheeting. It covers the preparation of test specimens, the procedures for conducting the test, and the calculation and reporting of test results.
These standards provide a standardized framework for conducting tensile tests and allow for the comparison of test results from different materials and testing facilities. Adherence to these standards is important for ensuring the reliability and accuracy of test results.
Summary: I know so much about the use and use of the tension tester. After reading this article, you should have a basic understanding and understanding! In general, I hope to help you.