Color fastness to perspiration:
The color fastness to perspiration (acid and alkaline) refers to the ability not to fade and not to stain when the dyed fabric is perspired, and it is one of the main color fastness testing items of textiles. In daily life, textiles clenched to the skin for a long time and come into contact with the sweat secreted by the skin, which may lead to the transfer of dyes to the skin, so it is particularly important of colour fastness to perspiration test of clothing products.
At present, ISO 105 E04, AATCC 15, JIS L 0848 are common color fastness to perspiration test method. In addition, GB/T 3992, BS EN ISO 105 E04, din EN ISO 105 E04, NF G07 013 E04, EN ISO 105 E04 in China, Britain, Germany, France, and Europe, which are referred to ISO 105 E04 perspiration fastness test method. Therefore, this paper will discuss the color fastness to perspiration test of textiles from two aspects that we pay more attention to.Comparison of the color fastness to perspiration test for different versions of ISO 105 E04:
Comparison of ISO 105 E04:2013, ISO 105 E04:2008 and ISO 105 E04:1994Comparison of the standard of colour fastness to perspiration in different countries:
Comparison of ISO 105 E04, AATCC 15, and JIS L 0848
1 Comparison of ISO 105 E04: 2013, ISO 105 E04: 2008 and ISO 105 E04: 1994
Table 1: Comparison of ISO 105 E04: 2013, ISO 105 E04: 2008 and ISO 105 – E04: 1994
|Project||ISO 105 E04: 2013||ISO 105 E04: 2008||ISO 105 E04: 1994|
|Sweat Component||Acid Sweat, Alkali Sweat||Acid Sweat, Alkali Sweat||Acid Sweat, Alkali Sweat|
|PH||5.5±0.2, 8.0±0.2||5.5±0.2, 8.0±0.2||5.5, 8.0|
|Temp of Oven||37℃±2℃||37℃±2℃||37℃±2℃|
|Adjacent Fabric||seven kinds of single
fiber adjacent fabrics
|seven kinds of single
fiber adjacent fabrics
|nine kinds of single
fiber adjacent fabrics
|Pick Up Ratio||No requirement||2-2.5 times its
|Way of Placing||Horizontal position
or vertical position
|Vertical position||Horizontal position|
Compared ISO 105 E04: 2013, ISO 105 E04: 2008 and ISO 105 E04: 1994 from table 1, we can see that the technical parameters such as lined fabric, liquid rate, and placement mode have been greatly modified.
1.1 Choosing of Adjacent Fabric
Adjacent fabric specified in ISO 105 – E04 can be single fiber adjacent fabric, and also can multifiber adjacent fiber. If use single fiber adjacent fabric, one of adjacent fabric chosen is made of fibers of the same kind as the specimen, and the other chosen is made of corresponding fibers standard specifies; if specimen is blending or interweave fabric, for the first sample, the fibers with the main content are selected, while for the second sample, the fibers with the minor content are selected.
Table 2 Selection of Single Fiber Adjacent Fabric
It can be seen that compared with ISO 105 – E04: 1994, ISO 105 – E04: 2008 is less two kinds of a single fiber, hemp, and CA tow. From the point of my view, the main reason is that the properties of hemp and cotton are close to each other, while the properties of CA tow and viscose are close to each other, and the choice of the second fiber is basically similar. From the original 9 kinds of single fibers to 7 kinds of single fibers, it is more in line with actual operation. The requirements of adjacent fabric for version 2013 and version 2008 are the same.
1.2 Comparison of Treatment Methods for Composite Specimen after Immersion
Standard ISO 105 – E04: 2008 specifies that the mass of composite specimen after 30-minute immersion is 2-2.5 times of the original mass of composite specimen through an appropriate method, while ISO 105 – E04: 2013 and ISO 105 – E04: 1994 requires nothing but just to gently scrape the excess sweat from the composite specimen.
Table 3 Comparison of Effect of Different Way of Placing Perspiration Rack on Color Fastness to Acid, Alkali of Fabric
Through experiment comparison, the two treatment methods result in large difference between test results. (see Table 3). 1# in Table 3 means that don’t take pick up ratio of composite specimen into consideration according to ISO 105 – E04: 1994; 2# means that take pick up ratio of composite specimen into consideration according to ISO 105 – E04: 2008. Therefore, when doing the test, we should find out which version of the customer’s requirements are, and whether there are specific requirements for this.
1.3 Ways of Placing Perspiration Rack into the Oven
Through the experiment comparison, ways of placing perspiration rack into the oven affect the test result a little at the same testing condition(see Table 3). Therefore, ISO 105 E04: 2013 allows for two ways of placement.
2 Comparison of ISO 105 E04: 2013, AATCC 15: 2009 and JIS L0848
Table 4: Comparison of three standards for color fastness to perspiration
|Project||ISO 105 E04: 2013||AATCC 15: 2009||JIS L 0848: 2004|
|Acid Perspiration||Acid Perspiration,
|Ready-to-use||Store at Room Temp
for 3 days
|PH||5.5±0.2, 8.0±0.2||4.3±0.2||5.5, 8.0|
|Bath Ratio||50:1||Utensils Filled
|Adjacent Fabric||Seven Kinds
|Pick Up Ratio||No requirement||2.25±0.05 times of
its original weight
|Squeeze the sample
until no solution drops
|Hammer Pressure/ N||49||44.49||50N or 45N|
|Oven Temp/ ℃||37±2||38±1||37±2|
It can be seen that differences exist between three kinds of standard for color fastness to perspiration, meanwhile, common point also exits.
2.1 Three kinds of principle of standard test are basically the same through comparison. Through a comparison of technical parameters, they have similarities and great differences as well.
2.2 The tests show that the preparation of man-made perspiration affects test results much. AATCC 15-2009 standard is very strict with preparation of perspiration. If pH is not in the range of 4.3±0.2, perspiration needs preparing anew. While man-made perspiration of ISO 105-E04: 2013 standard needs adjusting with 0.1mol/L NaOH in preparation. JIS l0848 standard offers a practical suggestion: add 15mL 0.1mol/L NaOH to acid liquor, so that pH of acid perspiration is 5.5; add 25mL 0.1mol/L NaOH to alkali liquor, so that pH of alkali perspiration is 8.0.
2.3 Through an army of tests, it is found that ways of composite specimen controlling its pick up ratio after immersion affect test results much during the process of test. In order to make test results more referential, experimenters should conduct a lot of tests, so as to make pick up ratio of composite specimen after immersion not only in accordance with standard requirements but make its surface with liquid well-distributed.
2.4 Perspirometer and procedure: the main equipment to be used is perspirometer tester and drying oven. In addition to the requirements of heavy hammer, other equipment can basically be used.
The color fastness test of textile materials is the most encountered and the most headache in the textile industry. In addition to the color fastness to perspiration test, there are common colorfastness to crocking test, color fastness to rubbing, colour fastness to washing, color fastness to light and so on. Try to grasp the test from the principle, scope, test environment and so on, understand the key of each standard, so as to master the core of the test. TESTEX Blog will share more knowledge about textile testing to help you do a better job of textile quality control.