About the Heat and Moisture Properties of Fabrics – 6 Prerequisites that must be Known for Garment Development
In the environmental elements, the greater impact on human comfort is temperature and humidity, and…
Table of Contents
Textile testing, according to the relevant standards, using physical or chemical methods, testing the quality and performance of textiles for qualitative or quantitative, and making a test report. Textile testing serves the textile quality management system by analyzing and studying the composition, structure, and properties of textiles and their impact on quality from the point of view of their use and conditions of use, so as to determine whether the textile products meet the requirements of the specified standards and to determine the value of use.
Personnel engaged in testing work need to be trained and assessed before starting work to obtain qualifications. Assessment evaluation should include theoretical knowledge and field operations. Staff engaged in the detection of large or complex instruments need the instrument operation assessment before starting work, and only after passing the assessment can independently engage in testing activities. For example, the length of cotton hand pulling, chemical fiber linear density determination, chemical fiber length assessment, and other testing work, testing personnel need to have a certain amount of time of practical experience before they can independently carry out testing work.
The laboratory should regularly evaluate the continued competence of the testing personnel and maintain files on the qualifications, training, skills, and experience of the testing personnel. The laboratory’s training program should include the relevant technical requirements for training, the equipment used, and training objectives, as well as the special requirements of each test.
|Standards||Corresponding Standards Organizations||Countries of Recognition|
|AATCC||American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists||American Countries|
|ASTM||American Society for Testing and Materials||American Countries|
|FTMS||The United States Government||US|
|AS||Standard Australia||Australia & New Zealand|
|US CPSC||The US Consumer Product Safety||US|
|EN||European Committee for Standardization||European Countries|
|BS||British Standards Institution||UK|
|DIN||Deutsches Institut Für Normung||Germany|
|NF||Association Francaise de Nprmalisation||France|
|CAN/CGSB||Canadian General Standards Board||Canada|
|JIS||Japanese Standards Association||Japan|
|ISO||International Organization for Standardization||European Countries|
|IDFB||International Down and Feather Bureau||Most countries in the world|
|IWS||International Wool Secretariat||Most countries in the world|
|GB||Standardization Administration of China||China|
|FZ||China National Textile Industry Council||China|
3.1 Fiber Composition analysis/standards
|fiber qualitative analysis, |
Identify the types of commonly used fibers
|AATCC 20, ASTM D 276|
|fiber quantitative analysis, |
Test the composition content of various types of textiles and to determine the type of fiber contained in the fabric.
|AATCC 20A, ASTM D 269, ISO 1833, ISO 5088, |
BS 4407, TM 155, JIS L 1030, GB/T 2910, GB/T 2911, FZ/T 01095, FZ/T 01048,
Microscopic method: GB/T 16988, FZ/T 01048
|rate of moisture regain / moisture content||(fiber wet weight－fiber dry weight) / fiber dry weight|
3.2 Fiber & Yarn Testing / standards
|fiber fineness||diameter / cross-section area|
|Linear density / yarn counts||ASTM D1059, ISO 7211/5, BS 2865, JIS L-1096, FZ/T 01093|
|Yarn strength||ASTM D2256, ISO 2062, GB/T 14344, GB/T 3916|
|twist per unit length||ISO 2061, ASTM D1422/1423, BS 2085|
3.3 Fabric tissue analysis / standards
|threads per unit length||ASTM D3775, ASTM D3887, DIN/BS EN 1049.2, ISO 7211/2, JIS L-1096, GB/T 4668|
|fabric width||ASTM D3774, ISO 3932, JIS L-1096, GB/T 4667|
|fabric grams||ASTM D3776, ISO 3801, DIN/BS EN 12127, GB/T 4669|
|fabric thickness||ASTM D1777, ISO 5084, DIN/BS EN ISO 5084, GB/T 3820|
|fabric length||ASTM D3773, ISO 3933, JIS L 1096, GB/T 4666|
3.4 Color Fastness Testing / standards
|Color fastness to washing / soaping, |
Colour fastness to domestic and commercial laundering
|AATCC 61, ISO 105 C01～C06, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 C01～C06, JIS L 0844, GB/T 3921.1~3921.5, GB/T 12490|
|Color fastness to crocking / rubbing, |
Dry / wet test the colourfastness of textiles of all kinds to rubbing off and staining other materials
|AATCC 8, ISO 105-X12, DIN/BS EN ISO 105-X12, JIS L-0849 TYPE 1 TEST, AATCC 116, GB/T 3920|
|Color fastness to perspiration||AATCC 15, ISO 105 E04, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 E04, JIS L 0848, GB/T 3922|
|Color fastness to dry cleaning||AATCC 132, ISO 105 D01, DIN/BS EN ISO 105 D01, JIS L 0860, GB/T 5711|
|Color fastness to sunlight||AATCC 16, ISO 105 B02, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 B02, JIS L 0843, GB/T 8427|
|Water fastness||AATCC 107, ISO 105 E01, DIN/BS EN ISO 105 E01, JIS L 0846, GB/T 5713|
|Color fastness to seawater||AATCC 106, ISO 105 E02, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 E02, JIS L 0847, GB/T 5714|
|Color fastness to hot pressing, |
Tests are given for hot pressing when the textile is dry, when it is wet, and when it is damp. The end-use of the textile usually determines which test should be made.
|AATCC 133, ISO 105 X11, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 X11, JIS L 0850, GB/T 6152|
|Color fastness to dry heat||AATCC 117, ISO 105 P01, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 P01, JIS L 0879, GB/T 5718|
|Color fastness to acid spotting||ISO 105 E05, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 E05, JIS L 0851, GB/T 5715|
|Color fastness to alkaline spotting||ISO 105 E06, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 E06, JIS L 0852, GB/T 5716|
|Color fastness to water spotting||AATCC 104, ISO 105 E07, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 E07, JIS L 0853, GB/T 5717|
|Color fastness to chlorine bleaching||AATCC 188|
|Color fastness to organic solvents||ISO 105 X05, BS/DIN EN ISO 105 X05, GB/T 7074|
|Saliva fastness||DIN 53160, GB/T 18886|
|Color fastness to chlorinated water||AATCC 162, ISO 105 E03, DIN/BS EN ISO 105 E03, GB/T 8433|
3.5 Dimensional stability (Shrinkage) testing
|dimensional stability of washing||AATCC 135, AATCC 150, ISO 6330, BS/DIN EN 6330, GB/T 8630|
|dimensional stability of dry cleaning||Commercial Dry cleaning After 1Cycle|
|appearance after laundering||AATCC 124, AATCC 143, AATCC 88B, AATCC 88C, ISO 7768, ISO 7769, ISO 7770, GB/T 13769, GB/T 13770, GB/T 13771|
3.6 Strength Testing
|tensile strength||ASTM D5034, ASTM D5035, ISO 13934-1, BS/DIN EN ISO 13934-1, ISO 13934.2, BS/DIN ISO 13934.2, JIS L 1096, GB/T 3923.1, GB/T 3923.2|
|bursting strength||ASTM D3786, ISO 13938-1, JIS L 1096, DIN/BS EN ISO 13938-1, GB/T 7742|
|tearing strength||Elemendorf method |
ASTM D1424, ISO 13937.1, ISO 9290, JIS L 1096, BS/DIN EN ISO 13937.1, GB/T 3917.1,
tongue tear method
Single-rip: ASTM D2261, ISO 13937-2, BS/DIN EN ISO 13937-2, JIS L 1096, GB/T 3917.2
Double tear: ISO 13937-4, BS/DIN EN ISO 13937-4, JIS L 1096, GB/T 3917.2
ASTM D5587, ISO 9037.4, ISO 13937.3, BS/DIN EN ISO 9037.4, GB/T 3917.3
|seam slippage||ASTM D434, ISO 13936.1&2, JIS L 1096, BS/DIN ISO 13936.1&2, GB/T 13772.1|
|seam strength||ASTM D1683, JIS L 1096, ISO 10935-1&2, BS/DIN EN ISO 10935-1&2, GB/T 13773, FZ/T 70007|
3.7 Performance Testing
|abrasion resistance||ASTM D4966, JIS L 1096, GB/T 13775, BS/DIN EN ISO 12947.2~12947.4|
|pilling resistance||Pilling box method |
ISO 12945-1, BS 5811, DIN EN ISO 12945.1, JIS L 1076, GB/T 4802.3
Random tumbler method
ASTM D 4970, ISO 12495.2, BS/DIN EN ISO 12495.2, GB/T 4802.2
|waterproof||spray test |
AATCC 22, DIN/BS EN 24920, ISO 4920, BS 3702, GB/T 4745
hydrostatic head method
AATCC 127, ISO 811, DIN/BS EN 20811, GB/T 4744
|air permeability||ASTM D737, ISO 9237, BS/DIN EN ISO 9237, GB/T 11048|
|Water management||AATCC 195|
|stretch and recovery||ASTM D2594 (knitted fabric) |
ASTM D3107 (woven fabric)
BS 4952 (elastic fabric)
JIS L 1096 (woven fabric)
3.8 Flammability Testing
|Textiles & clothing Flammability||ASTM D1230, US CPSC CFR 16 Part 1610|
|surface flammability of carpets and rugs||US CPSC CFR 16 Part 1630 |
US CPSC CFR 16 Part 1631
|burning behavior of bedding items||ISO 12952.1~12952.3, |
US CPSC CFR 16 Part 1632
|fire test for flame resistance textiles (small scake)||GB 8965|
|children’s sleepwear||DOC FF3 US CPSC CFR 16 Part 1615, |
DOC FF5 US CPSC CFR 16 Part 1616
|Burning behaviour – Vertical method||GB/T 5455, GB/T 5456|
3.9 Garment accessories testing (zippers, buttons, Velcro, etc.)
|zipper strength||ASTM D2061, BS 3084|
|unsnapping of snap fastness||16 CFR 1500.51-53, ASTM PS79-96, EN 71-1|
|shear strength of Velcro tape||BS 7271|
|the peel strength of Velcro tape||BS 7271|
3.10 other test
|UPF ( ultraviolet protection factor )||penetration P of solar UVR|
|care label recommendation||garment size measurement|
|color difference assessment||whiteness, AATCC 110|
|Environmental textile testing, PH value, azo dyes, formaldehyde content, heavy metal content…||Appearance quality assessment|
|Safety Design||The laboratory should establish and implement procedures regarding laboratory safety and personnel health protection with safety and protective equipment and facilities, including but not limited to personal protective equipment, smoke alarms, emergency sprinklers, and eyewash devices, fire extinguishers, first aid kits, ventilation facilities, etc.|
|Test instrument requirements||Select testing instruments that meet testing standards and are certified by quality systems (such as ISO 9001)，which are in terms of accuracy, range, and stability, such as TESTEX textile testing instruments.|
|Specific Environmental Requirements||The standard stipulates that the test items with environmental requirements must meet the relevant requirements of temperature and humidity, standard illumination, odor assessment of environmental conditions. Cotton color grade inspection, color fastness rating, pilling rating, appearance rating inspection, yarn blackboard strip rating test environment must use a dedicated space to ensure that the rating results are not affected by other light sources in the adjacent area, the test environment to meet the standard illumination, the relevant requirements of the test room wall color.|
|Environmental requirements||Environmental protection laboratory has been the goal of international professional laboratory construction, laboratory wastewater, the waste gas composition is complex, containing acidic, alkaline, organic class, inorganic class, biological class, and other components, the random discharge of these wastes, the corresponding processing media put forward high requirements.|
|Management System||Laboratory management needs to realize the monitoring of the operation status of experimental instruments, room temperature, humidity, pressure, cleanliness, air disturbance, vibration disturbance, and other monitoring, as well as gas leakage, low pressure monitoring, and linked fire, security monitoring, etc. Laboratory operation involves many aspects such as reagents, consumables, documents, samples, data, instruments, personnel, etc. For laboratories with large experimental tasks or requiring fine management, how to achieve efficient, economical, and orderly experimental work needs to be studied in depth.|
Quality management is a system, to ensure the quality of textile products, only testing is not enough, the relevant personnel, processes, etc. must also meet the relevant processes of Conformity Assessment: testing, inspection, certification, accreditation. In the following, I will analyze the four aspects, specifically the system related to the conformity assessment of textiles.
According to ISO/IEC 17000, conformity assessment refers to the confirmation that the requirements related to products (including services), processes, systems, people, or institutions are met. It includes four parts: testing, inspection, certification, and accreditation.
|Testing||According to technical standards, use the instruments and equipment to test a given object and provide test data. Testing work is an independent technical activity that can provide services for inspection and certification but is not equivalent to inspection.|
|Inspection||Relying on experience and knowledge, based on test data and other information, who review the conformity of product design, product quality, production processes, etc., to see if they comply with the relevant regulations.|
|Certification||By having a third-party nature of the body to prove that the product, service, process, or personnel in line with the relevant standards and norms assessment behavior, including product certification and system certification, etc.|
|Accreditation||Accreditation bodies to the technical competence of the certification bodies, inspection bodies, laboratory to give proof of conformity assessment activities.|
According to the nature of the activities of conformity assessment, it can be divided into three categories: first-party, second-party and third-party.
|First-party||It refers to the assessment implemented by manufacturers, service providers and other suppliers, such as self-inspection and internal audit carried out by manufacturers to meet their own R&D, design and production needs.|
|Second-party||It refers to the assessment carried out by the demand side such as users, consumers or buyers, such as the inspection of goods by buyers and factory inspection before signing contracts.|
|Third-party||It refers to the assessment implemented by third-party organizations independent of both supply and demand, such as product certification, management system certification, various types of accreditation activities. Certification, accreditation and inspection and testing activities issued to the community with the role of proof are third-party conformity assessment.|
Compared with the first-party and second-party conformity assessment, the third-party conformity assessment is carried out by institutions with independent status and professional competence strictly in accordance with national or international standards and technical specifications, which has higher authority and credibility, and thus is generally recognized by all parties in the market, which can not only effectively ensure quality and protect the interests of all parties, but also enhance market trust and promote trade facilitation.
There are many international textile inspection and certification bodies, responsible for the inspection and certification of international trade goods, the common well-known institutions are listed below.
|SGS||SOCIETE GENERALE DESURVEILLANCE S.A. is currently the world’s largest group of companies specializing in international commodity inspection, testing and certification, and is a comprehensive inspection and certification body.|
|ITS||ITS is an international commodity inspection organization that buys powerful inspection agencies in the world to form its own inspection group. the ITS group includes the Carpenter Group, Intertek International, Anna Laboratories, Ingenious Lloyd’s Agency, Intertec Services, etc.|
|UL||UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. is the most authoritative in the United States, but also the largest inspection body in the world, which testing and identification of private inspection agencies. The laws of many U.S. states explicitly provide that home appliances without the UL mark are not allowed to be sold in the market.|
|BSI||The British Standards Institute, a provider of international standards services that integrates five complementary businesses: standards research and development, standards technical information provision, product testing, system certification and commercial inspection services, provides services worldwide.|
|STR||Specialized Technology Resources, France|
|CQC||China Quality Certification Center|
The results of the conformity assessment are usually publicized to the society in written form such as certificates, reports and logos. Through this public proof, the problem of information asymmetry is solved in order to obtain the general trust of relevant parties and the public. The main forms are.
— certification certificate, logo.
–Accreditation certificate, logo.
–Certificate of inspection, test reports.
3.1 For consumers, consumers can benefit from conformity assessment, because conformity assessment provides the basis for consumers to choose products or services.
3.2 For textile enterprises, there are many orders and self-developed products, so there need so many times of testing and inspection. If every test is sent to a third-party institution testing and inspection, in terms of time and money will cause a huge waste. Therefore, the establishment of their own testing laboratories, set inspection regulations will be a long-term solution.
3.3 For the regulatory authorities, all kinds of inspection and testing, certification activities of the assessment body is very much, the good and the bad, so that users have no choice, and even damage the interests of the parties concerned. To ensure the authority and impartiality of inspection and testing results, accreditation activities came into being, providing the means to implement laws and regulations and achieve public policy goals.
3.4 For international trade, with the development of economic globalization, accreditation activities in various regions require the adoption of uniform standards and rules procedures, and then developed into a regional certification system. For example, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) promotes the establishment of the ISO 9001 international quality management system, and the certification activities based on this standard.
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