What is the Martindale Abrasion Test?

I am sure the term Martindale Abrasion test is not a new term to anyone in the textile field. Either the term looks familiar or looks new, this article is a must read if you want to understand the term and what it entails.At the end of this article,you will understand what the Martindale Abrasion test is, how the Martindale Abrasion test works and how to reads the Martindale Abrasion test result.

Martindale abrasion test refers to the testing of textile products according to Martindale standard system and tests the abrasion resistance of the fabric through the test. Abrasion resistance refers to the resistance of fabric to other materials in the process of repeated friction with other materials. Pilling resistance is an important quality index of textile product, which directly affects the durability and application effect of the product. Martindale abrasion tester is used to test the abrasion and pilling resistance of fabric.

Martindale Test Standard

Because different countries, different regions have different standards, we can divide them into international standards, the American standards, the European standards, and the Chinese standards and so on. The details are as follows:

International Standard

ISO12947.2—1998 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 2: measurement of specimen breakage;

ISO12947.3—1998 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 3: measurement of mass loss;

ISO12947.4—1998 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 4: measurement of appearance change.

American Material Association Standard (ASTM)

ASTMD4966-2010

EU Standards

ENISO12947.2-1998 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 2: measurement of specimen breakage;

ENISO12947.3-1998 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 3: measurement of mass loss;

ENISO12947.4-1998 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 4: measurement of appearance change.

Chinese Standards

GB/T21196.2-2007 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 2: measurement of specimen breakage;

GB/T21196.3-2007 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 3: measurement of mass loss;

GB/T21196.4-2007 The abrasion and pilling resistance testing of fabrics by the Martindale method-part 4: measurement of appearance change.

Martindale Abrasion & Pilling Tester

 

Having understood the basic concept of the Martindale Abrasion test, it is important we look at how the Martindale Abrasion test works.

How does the Martindale Abrasion test works?

This process is not complicated once the Martindale Abrasion and pulling tester TF210 is readily available.

Pull out the fabric to be tested and load the fabric onto the lower plates of the Machine (Martindale Abrasion and pulling tester TF210). Then the abradant (the abradant can be a small disc of either worsted wool or wire mesh). The abradant is then rubbed against the specimen to be tested in a oscillating circle.

Ensure you inspect the fabric continually to check for wear and tear. Immediately you notice any change in appearance of the fabric, or when two yarns break, you end the test immediately.

Notice

The standard friction cloth shall be replaced before testing each new specimen or before the test is finished for 50000 times. Check the standard friction cloth for contamination or wear, if any, replace it. This method is not suitable for the fabrics whose thickness exceeds 3mm. Samples can be washed or dry-cleaned before testing.

Evaluation Method for the Test Result

There are three Martindale methods to evaluate the wear resistance of fabric: specimen breakage method, mass loss method, and appearance quality change method. The sample breakage method is the most commonly used among the three methods, which has a small error and the test result is intuitionistic and clear, the wear resistance of different fabrics is easy to be compared. The assessment of mass loss method and appearance quality change method is more complex, but it can reflect the wear resistance of samples at different friction stages. It has strong practicability in analyzing the use of fabrics in production enterprises or scientific research institutions.

How to read the Martindale test result?

Take the sample breakage method as an example. The test result from the Martindale machine is usually given as a score of 1000’s of rubs or cycles completed. The higher the score of rubs or cycles, the more suitable the fabric is for heavier usage. We categorize fabrics basically on the test results.

  • Research has shown that when a result of less than 1000 rubs is obtained, the fabric is recommended to be used for decorative purpose (i.e accents and cushion), so therefore, this fabric is not recommended for general use.
  • If the fabric gives a result of 10,000 to 15,000 rubs, the fabric is highly recommended for use on furniture that will be used occasionally. The reason why the fabric is recommended for light domestic is because the fabric is constructed delicately or the fabric is made of delicate yarns.
  • If the fabric gives 25,000 to 30,000 rubs, then it can be used for heavy duty (on the main furniture in the house which will be used daily and continually).
  • If you are having more than 30,000 rubs, then the fabric is suitable for both commercial and heavy duty use (commercial furniture and environments).
  • Lastly, people have problem when the notice that their has more than 50,000. The answer to this is that rubs like this have little impact in the practical application.This is because the Martindale test is for abrasion only and some other factors can affect wear and tear of a fabric, other factors like Chemicals used to wash the textile, the UV exposure etc, just the way a fabric having high rub count means the fabric will be resistant to cat claws.

I am sure at this point, you will understand what the Martindale Abrasion test is and reason why it is important to be done for fabric, I am also sure you also learnt about the Martindale Abrasion and pulling tester TF210 machine to carry out the test.I hope this article has been helpful on what Martindale Abrasion test is all about.

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